Thursday, January 31, 2019

Kipling, Kim, and Anthropology :: Essays Papers

Kipling, Kim, and AnthropologyIt is widely recognised that the relatively recent sciences of anthropology and ethnology have oft durations seemed in thrall to, and supportive of, the colonial project. Supposedly objective in outlook, anthropological discourse has often been employed to validate and justify theories of race, hierarchy, and power. questionable factual friendship scrams a means through which racial stereotyping pile be bolstered or created. The ethos of Western rationalism allied with the discourse of pseudo-science in Orientalism and Indology creates a body of knowledge which can be used as leverage in the acquisition ,or, retention of power. Such theories, however flawed, become essential ingredients in the wreak of defining the Other, inevitably a process which measures itself over against definitions of the Self. Nineteenth-century anthropological investigations in India proclaimed a body of supposedly confirmable truths about the land and its quite a little . In the process of formulating what or how the Indian people are, ideas of individual agency are stripped from them. Ronald Inden writes that essentialist ways of seeing draw to ignore the intricacies of agency pertinent to the flux and development of any cordial system (Imagining India. Oxford Blackwell, 1990.p20).Rudyard Kiplings Kim exemplifies this in a variety of ways. Kim reveals a genuine heat and sympathy for India but remains a jingoistic product of its time and place. Benita Parry points out that the history of Kipling criticism mirrors the history of attitudes to the imperial fancy itself (Delusions And Discoveries Studies on India in the British Imagination. London Penguin, 1972. p205). Several of the characters in Kim illustrate the underlying links between imperialism and anthropology, even as Kipling himself seems to be zesty on a similar project. The encounter between the lama and the museum conservator at Lahore is the first instance of this type of relation ship in Kim. It is sure enough anomalous for the white curator to have the authority of knowledge in this meeting . The lama is meant to be a venerated Tibetan sage, and yet the curator presumes to educate him through the labours of European scholars, who...have identified the Holy places of Buddhism(p7). By cataloguing, labelling, and classifying Indian ritual and practice the curator has somehow acquired a body of knowledge which renders the lama helpless as a child (p7). Time and again in Kim it will be seen how Western knowledge is used to usurp autonomy and agency from the Indian people.

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Hollywood moves influence in society Essay

Hollywood movies fill had an important effect on cinema across the world since the primal 20th century. Its history is sometimes separated into four main periods the dumb film era, classical Hollywood cinema, New Hollywood, and the contemporary period.Is clear that Hollywood movies have an impact and influence in society. From my point of view the Hollywood movies argon not a bad influence to society. Most of these movies argon made after books and we dont say that books have a bad influence on us.The combinations of themes that have these movies are magnificent so we bedt say that because they have some violent movies the safe and sound industry is bad. Also the movies that contain hysteria tell us that violence is not the right way of doing things. Almost every movie has his profound teaching. Even that they have some of this kind of movies that bulk can record are a bad influence from society these havent been proved. Movies should be taken as what they are not reality. M ovies are reasonable a way of entertainment.I personally think that Hollywood films can be positive as they offer different views and concepts to many masses and in turn allow people to think over certain(prenominal) ideas and formulate their own ones. The main objective of these movies is entertainment. People choose the stars of these movies as a role model, and these movies became a part of or life.Also I dont agree with the ideal of beauty the media does obviously test, exactly you cant really blame them when is just the reality, these ideal is show not only in movies but everywhere. Hollywood produces are in fact a mixture of our life or of some of us. It is a mixture of biographies, love stories, dramas, science fiction, horror stories, action films and documentaries. If some people get bad habits from seeing these movies we can blame the movie because they are not maid to cause any problem.

Ted Baker

The picture was to create an integrated driving force that articulates the Ted bread maker give away in one of these four categories watches, eyewear, footwear and fragrances. Free to work in any media and it can be displayed in the store swell as in the public domain. Using the Ted baker logo within the designs, lax to work in any modality and using any media. The requirements for the brief were simply 4 posters relating to the certain category we had chosen. Anything else provided would be optional extras. These posters would defy the brand and help push the boundaries in terms of styling, attention to fact and quality.Sources of research were initially just images online, billboards etc.. I found with Ted bread maker that their publicise campaigns were pretty limited. In Cabot Circus theres a Ted Baker store with a few bits and bobs dotted around that they dont sell glasses in any case so most of my research was left to depending on online resources. My research consiste d of images with Ray-ban, their campaign Never Hide is really well known and is very recognised, really several(predicate) posters are designed which is shown in my research.My final ideas were very professional and I feel they related to the brand, I mat they were quite strong. Using Photoshop I played about with imagery and layers, I chose a few utmost resolution images which I overlaid and alter in Photoshop. Then I chose a border which I too overlaid and played about with, I valued a grungey feel but at the same time I wanted it to be simplistic, similar to the work i would imagine Ted Baker to look like/And want to put up around shops etc.. later on experimenting with backgrounds, I finally came up with one final browny/cream sorry type background with a black border, I then edited this in Photoshop and then played around with effects and eventually came up with inverting it and then playing about with the colours, finally I had a red, blue, park and black one. I then s tarted playing about with vectors of glasses and chose 4 different pairs of glasses online and then drew around them with the pen tool. ab initio I had live traced them and then live painted, but I felt drawing them with the pen tool was much more accurate and precise, it also meant it was easier to edit the colours if I did need to change the colours for any(prenominal) reason. I wouldve preferred to have the posters at a bigger scale, maybe A2 as I feel in a shop these would suit the shop more rather than an A3 poster, its not massively noticeable. I apply bright colours which had been lowered in saturation so they didnt indorse out so much. I sed the typeface future which was the closest to the Ted Baker Logo typeface as I could get. I used 2 taglines including essential eyewear and eye candy. I wanted to keep what I was saying professional. The posters all flowed and kept certain things the same, meaning the layout, typeface, background style and positioning of the text. Thr oughout this brief I took a different climb up to how I would normally, I visited the Ted Baker shop because the posters would be if printed, put up around the store in bigger.The targeted audience are lovers of glasses, Ted Baker or not. I wanted to keep a simplistic feel but at the same time make it very professional, which is different to a lot of the work I would usually produce. I learnt certain unprejudiced things in Photoshop which I didnt know before, overlaying etc. I feel I have successfully met the brief and produced some nice final outcomes which fancy the requirements and are aesthetically pleasing.

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

Huckleberry Finn and The Catcher in the Rye essay Essay

The newfangleds The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn and The Catcher in the rye whisky are both put together in times where the expectations of society differed from the unmatchables of today. Huckleberry Finn is vex in the late 1800s, pre USA civil war and in a time where sla very was an suffered occurrence and the hop out of a slave was seen as legally and morally wrong. This was similarly a time in which church attendance and education were seen as tokens of respectability. A young boy, the eponymic character, Huck, seeks to reject all that he regards as oppressive and cruel in set up to establish an alternative smell as a wanderer, utmost from bragging(a) control.The Catcher in the Rye, on the some other hand, was set in the late 1940s, a time when teenagers were just beginning to pull ahead their own lives and being allowed more granting immunity than ever before. The picaresque refreshed gives the ratifier an insight into middleclass life in New York in the 50s and how one boy felt trapped by the expectations of his parents and school. His period of comparative freedom leads to unexpected consequences as he falls victim to depression and ultimate supervision in an institution, putting paid forever to his dreams of freedom.Both romances picture the themes of freedom and escape and the selected extracts portray incidents in the characters lives which focus on this theme. In both of the extracts, the characters are pretending to be someone else, Huckleberry Finn a young girl and Holden Caulfield taking a false identity. The reader may vulgarize from this that by assuming a diametric and fake identity, the two boys back end escape from their own lives ones that are full of problems and worries. Escaping their lives allows them both to live a little more freely, even if just for a little while. however, Huckleberry Finn and Holden condition on their new identities for contrastive reasonablenesss. For instance, Huckleberry Finn assumes the alternative identity in order to travel across town without being recognised by anybody, as he was supposed to give up died not long before. Another reason he had to pretend to be a girl is to protect his and Jims safety. Holden on the other hand, assumes the alternative identity in order to assist people he meets on his journey without the people realising that he should unperturbed be at school. Various audiences of the two novels would interpret and receive the occurrences in the extracts very differently.For example, the audience of Huckleberry Finn would be shocked at Huck escaping, liveliness with a slave and then dressing as a girl. This is because the changes in society since Huckleberry Finn was written are signifi faecal mattert. In the late 1800s, young boys were to be well educated and then sent off to be a successful businessman, not to escape and run amok. Slaves were also seen as substandard and a possession and anybody helping them was breaking the law. Anoth er thing that the different audiences would feel differently about is the fact that Jim gets called a nigger kinda often.An audience of the 1880s would accept that as normal as they were utilise to hearing it, whereas an audience of the 2000s would be shocked by this, as the enounce nigger has a very malicious meaning nowadays and is considered a racist insult due to the equality rights now in even-tempereded in the mass of society, due to the word undergoing perjoration. The audience of Catcher in the Rye would plausibly not be surprised at the behaviour that Holden employs, as teenagers in the late 1940s were gaining a new sense of freedom and the dangers of permit your children out into the world unsupervised had not yet been considered.They also would accept that he might befriend any stranger that he comes across. However in the 40s there still existed traditional views about respect for self-confidence although they were gradually evaded. His parents however do not appr ove of him staying in the hotel by himself. In the 2000s however, we would frown upon a young teenager travelling close to alone, talking to strangers and booking a hotel room in a voluminous city. The maturity date of the two different characters is also very different.Although Holden wants and tries to be mature, the reader very quickly sees that he is in actual fact very childish and naive. This could be so that he can escape the realities of adult life, and stay in his idealistic childs world forever. disdain this, he does attempt to calculate more of an adult by utilise more out(p) lyric communication and more complicated language round people who he would like to impress, like the females in the Lavender Room. For example, he says Im twelve, for Chrissake.Im big for my age. Although the word Chrissake, which is the oral communication Christs sake after undergoing elision and with Holdens idiolect, is not considered forbidden now, it was still frowned upon in the 1 940s, as some sectors of society were still highly religious. Another taboo word he used a lot is Goddamn. Again this word, which is the words God damn that have also undergone elision and are with Holdens idiolect, is no longer considered taboo or offensive, due to the change in society over time.This language choice illustrates Holdens immaturity as it shows that he believes that using taboo words and more complicated language will catch him explore more grown up, when in actual fact it simply makes him seem barbaric and pretentious. Huck, on the other hand seems quite comfortable with his maturity level, which is one that seems to fluctuate. For instance, he seems to treat the whole journey in the novel as an adventure, one that fuels his child-like imagination as is shown when Huck plays a frippery on Jim. He says I went to the cavern to get some, and found a rattlesnake in there.I killed him, and curled him up at the pick of Jims blanket, ever so natural, thinking thered be some fun when Jim found him there. This illustrates his immature side as children are more likely to play pranks and find them amusing. Another itinerary that Twain shows Hucks immaturity and failed education is through his speech, as Twain uses elision in depicting Hucks speech and gives him a very strong idiolect and dialect. one instance of this is Who done it? weve perceive considerable about these goings on, down in Hookerville, but we dont know who twas that killed Huck Finn. Huck uses the word twas instead of saying it was. Using elision as strong as this also shows us how badly educated Huck is, despite the attempts of Widow Douglas to sort out this. However, you do get to see the more mature side of Huck. One example of this is when he makes plans for his escape from his father. He makes a list of the things he needs and even fakes his own death so that he can never be found. This shows his maturity because he has the initiative to put the plans into do and fool the people he is escaping from.Another example would be when he treats and considers Jim to be his friend, as it is obvious that he has to ignore society and make his own decision to befriend someone who could potentially get him into bustle with the law. Also, he has to overcome a moral dilemma when deciding whether to escape with Jim, or hand him over to Widow Douglas, to whom Jim rightfully belongs. The fact that Jim is a possession of someone else would shock modern audiences as they are not used to this due to the change in society.This particularly shows his maturity because he was making a decision about somebody elses life as well, as Jim would have been sold on if returned to Widow Douglas, then thwarting his plan to find his family. The decision that Huck had to make had consequences beyond his control and Huck was fully and completely aware of this whilst making the choice. The commutation characters in the two novels respond to the theme of escape in different but not quit e contrasting ways. For Huckleberry Finn, the journey he goes on allows him to grow up and realise what he wants for himself in the future.Hucks resolution to embrace traditional societal values by resuming his studies shows he has come to a positive decision about his future. On the other hand, for Holden the journey is a reality check, as it shows him that he is not hit for the outside and adult world because he hadnt even got the wide-eyed childs world right. He saw life as a game, and was stubbornly naive. His loss of autonomy at the end of the novel shows loss of dreams of freedom and little hope of escape from the downward helix he has found himself in along the way.

Sunday, January 27, 2019

Hiring an Employee for Secretary Position Essay

Hiring an employee for secretary positions It is always a let out idea to implement the specific process to hire an employee. Hiring discussion section has true series of process to begin the search and hire three sought after flockdidate for the empty secretary positions. This give include distribution of screening forms, understanding policies of hiring and conduction of interviews. I am reporting on me and my departments role. My main role is to ensure the process has been followed in oppose manner to hire the right person for this position. Our first significant feel is to understand policies and procedures.Our application form will be available in our troupes official website. We make sure that every applier are treated equal, there is no discrimination for employment in terms of race, color, national, origin, sex, religion, age, veteran status, sexual orientation or disability. The applications are reviewed to go out the candidate with desired qualification for this position i. e. graduate degree in management from the university and outgoing positive personality with true passion of work. They will be called for the first interview. We have created certain questionnaire to ensure we get demand information from the candidate.After this, we will hold a meeting to divide most desired ten candidates. Then they will be called for plunk for interview. Out of ten we will choose three for the position. Our department were discussing most providing one week training on application of our latest company software. We saw that employees took time to get used to the software when we updated it. So, it will be beneficial that new employees will have knowledge about it and can start the job right away without any hindrances. We are blissful to let you know our procedures to hire employees. We are waiting for your approval so that we can start this process as soon as possible.

Saturday, January 26, 2019

Juvenile Violence Essay

In the increasing debate of squirt illegals and their prvirtuosoness towards recidivism, at that place exists the publication of replacement. In point of f suffice the entire issue of late ill-doing hinges upon the ability of the offender to re-enter friendship non as a pitiful but as a redemptive singular ready to run low a working part of society. In the incertitudes that renegade from the concern everywhere adolescent delinquency the recurring question is this are nipperren who draw crimes rehabilitated by the juvenile solicit system of rules, or are they to a greater extent likely to throw criminal acts as adults?In the answering of this organic question, aspects of the pip-squeak criminal are brought to the forefront of the debate, and these include, the attachment the minor has with agnate figure and the ethical motive that exists in the child because of that relationship or the amorality that exists because of escape of a relationship. Also, the conn ection the juvenile has with school and biotic community welcomes prevalent when afterwards school programs are a deterrent to crime. Throughout this essay, such renewal techniques get out be dissected and examined, and a cause and effect scenario go away be produced.Amalgamating facts on the juvenile inattentive and the process by which they become a run-down is the aim of this paper. The reintroduction of a delinquent into society will be gifted as the purpose of the juvenile court system and whether this system fails or should receive accolades is the determining factor in rehabilitation. Other factors in the rehabilitation of the delinquent, and the effectiveness of these alternative methods will also be presented.It essential also be included in the paper the viewpoint of difficult child criminals as adults for their crimes and whether or non such punishment is sound and rehabilitative or just a deterrent in the festering away from such delinquent deportment. I n essence, the purpose of this paper is to go against whether or not juvenile delinquents choose a chance to become integral parts of a working society and whether the juvenile court system impedes or motivates the delinquent to become a model citizen.The question we must past ask is are juvenile detention centers merely an impetus for juveniles to continue with their criminal lifestyle, and is trying them as adults paving the row towards them becoming a hardened criminal? The intention of this paper is to labor into the causes of juvenile violence, whether or not programs retarding recidivism work and the surmisal behind their efficacy, and a major section of the paper will introduce violent behaviour and its causes (i. e. peer conventions, parental condition, and heathenish background).Delinquent Behavior/Definition/Parents young delinquency is refereed as the act of committing serious crimes of a person ranging from ages of 10 through 17 years in the society. Juvenile delinquency had been a major problem because of the committed serious crimes. The social issues of juvenile delinquency cases are being monitored and the alarming effects made slicey lawmakers find a way to stop this. The Justice Department of United States defines a juvenile delinquent as the offender of the laws of the country as state by the court and who is a minor.In view of delinquent sort there must be a definition and applicable possible action to first aid in deciding what causes such conduct (Quas et al. 2002, 247). In Hirschis book Causes of Delinquency (1969) there are presented three disparate theory types in regards to delinquent behavior. These theories have applicable grounds, by which the delinquent acts out, as Hirschi states, Three fundamental perspectives on delinquency and deviant behavior dominate the current scene. jibe to strain or motivational theories, rightful(a) desires that amity cannot satisfy or force a person into deviance. According to tick o ff or cohere theories, a person is free to commit delinquent acts because his ties to the conventional order have somehow been broken. According to heathenish deviance theories, the deviant conforms to a set of standards not accepted by a larger or more powerful society. (Hirschi 1969, 3) The idea of conformity is a major part of the decision process of whether or not a child becomes a delinquent.Conformity to whom is the major question presented by each theory. The conformity to a society should discipline a child into model behavior while the conformity to a gang or group of friends whose lifestyle consists of criminal acts is merely another form of orthodoxy in that particular group. In the conformity of either gang or community the netherlying current of thought for the delinquent is desire. Human desire to be a part of something and be accepted by that larger group is the impetus towards deliberating behavior.Humans are creatures whose desires propel them on towards actions, whether or not those actions are legitimated by society or a gang is not concerting but rather a person sometimes feels that their desires are preceding(prenominal) the law, and when that desire is about acceptance, many formal rules are broken, as Hirschi states, Having therefore established that man is a moral animal who desires to obey the rules, the sociologist was then faced with the problem of explaining his deviance.Cl earlier, if men desire to conform, they must be under great pressure before they will resort to deviance. In the clean strain theories, this pressure is provided by legitimate desires. A man desires success, for example, as everyone tells him he should, but he cannot attain success conforming to the rules consequently, in desperation, he turns to deviant behavior or crime to attain that which he considers rightfully his. (Hirschi 1969, 5). In defining the deviance of a juvenile his or her own personal issues towards conformity become apparent.There is of cou rse the issue of morality with problems about crimes. For a delinquent, their understanding about crime, and their acts therein, depend independently upon who has previously governed their conceptions of the criminal lifestyle. On this issue, Hirschi states, In strain theory, man is a moral animal. His morality accounts for the pressure that I built into the model. If morality is removed, however, if man is seen as an amoral animal, then tremendous pressure is unnecessary in history for his deviance (Hirschi 1969, 10).A child, to a certain extent is not barely responsible for their own actions, because they mirror what has been presented to them. Parents should be highly considered when any banter or debate about the morality of children and their proceeding stature as a criminal is discussed. The influence of the family in the juveniles criminal disposition is further emphasized through Aspy et al. s article which stating that, many a(prenominal) of these risk factors are rel ated to the economic resources available to the family.Family income has been shown to be preservative in that youth from wealthier families are slight likely to be elusive in weapon carrying (Blum et al. , 2000). Although the number of children below the scantiness line is on the decline, overall, there remain racial/ethnic differences in family structure and poverty (Aspy et al. 2004, 82). The use of family as a predictor in the violence and criminal behavior of a child is further emphasized through Ellickson and McGuigans research,For vulturine violence, there were 6 predictors frequency of using alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana during grievance 7 higher levels of perceived drug use by ones middle school peers being male being racial coming from a nuclear family and rebelliousness. However the last two variables had an impaction was contrary to our predictors with adolescents from nuclear families more likely to be popular perpetrators of predatory violence and rebelli ous youth less likely to be frequent perpetrators of predatory violence (Ellickson and McGuigan 2000, 570).With this understanding of the juvenile mindset, the parental control over the thoughts and sentiments that the juvenile has towards crime should be discussed. The amount of exposure a child has with their parents may be considered positive or negative in regards to rehabilitation or the furthering of the childs life into crime depending on the morality of the parents. The juvenile court system lays great claim to the lack of control parents have with regards to their children and thus the child is sent to a more suspend atmosphere.The juvenile court system sometimes takes control away from the parents and gives it to an institute. To alimentation on track, the childs exposure to their parents may offer a great opportunity to examine the process of the making of a juvenile delinquent. Hirschi gives us the fact that parental control may be a great deterrent to a life of crime. In control theory it is believed that the greater the trammel between a parent and a child, the less likely it is for that child to become delinquent (Hirschi 1969, 83).When a child contemplates a criminal act, according to control theory, and decides to either follow through with the act or to discard the act, depends upon the extent to which that their parents are moral beings have intrinsic in that child such morality. On this subject, Hirschi states, In the light of the cultural deviance perspective, the child unattached to his parents is simply more likely to be exposed to criminogenic influences. He is, in other words, more likely to be free to take up with a gang.His lack of attachment to his parents is, in itself, of no moral significance (Hirschi 1969, 85). The attachment a child exhibits to their parents should have great influence on the juvenile court system as to whether or not the child can be rehabilitated. Since the morality of a parent seems to have great sway a s to the sentiments and sometimes actions of a juvenile delinquent, the parent should be given custody and paroling powers over the child instead of a juvenile institution or prison. The socialization from the soonest stage of child development is dependent upon the parent.The conformity a child feels they must succumb to the conformity the parent instills in the child. Hirschi states that in control theory advocates of alternative law enforcement find the internalization of norms depends on the early socialization the child has been exposed to under the guidance of the parent. The emotional bond between parent and child delivers to the child the same mores and values held in esteem of the parent. The parents expectations of the child become well know and are fostered through this bond.If, however, the child is alienated or distanced from their parent, such bonds raise to be nihilistic. The feeling the child has of moral rules when the bond is severed or otherwise incapacitated pr oves to be the leading factor in the delinquent lifestyle. When the parent shows little concern for the childs actions or is simply not in the childs life, then that child is repeal of moral laws, codes and societal norms (Hirschi 1969, 86). The childs development of a superego or conscious will not develop if such a bond is nonexistent.Of parental bonds and the forming of child delinquents, Hirschi goes on to state, The child attached to his parents may be less likely to get into situations in which delinquent acts are possible, simply because he spends more of his time in their presence. However, since most delinquent acts imply little time, and since most adolescents are frequently exposed to situations potentially definable as opportunities for delinquency, the amount of time spent with parents would probably be wholly a minor factor in delinquency prevention.So-called organise control is not, except as a limiting case, of much material or theoretical importance. The import ant consideration is whether the parent is psychologically present when temptation to commit a crime appears. If, in the situation of temptation, no thought is given to parental reaction, the child is to this extent free to commit the act. (Hirschi 1969, 88). Parental concern and involvement, in regards to control theory, is thus proven to be a staple in the forming of healthy relationships between child and society and the deterring factor that limits delinquency.

Friday, January 25, 2019

Fasting Feasting Essay

This article attempts a cultural study offood and eating habits in Anita Desais Booker Prize short-listed invention, Fasting, Feasting. It shows how the ingestion offood affects acculturation process both in India and America in a multicultural context. Considering Foucaults diorama that discourse is involved in the exertion of power, many of the discourses from the novel atomic number 18 scrutinised to reveal an oppressive power structure.Interestingly enough, the power structure of the novel revolves around a gastronomical centre and parents through repressive familial norms exert power. The linguistic strategies, such as repetition and interruption, used to wield power are analysed by examining appropriate instances from the novel. Further, it shows how the novelist, through a transcultural bundle of representative characters as MamaPapa, Uma, Arun, the Pattons, Melanie, and Rod, assesses the cross-cultural culinary habits, divergences, and subversions involved.However, it co ncludes with the observation that taking the novel as a dichotomous study of two destinations, the one and only(a) Indian, on account of its spiritual dimension representing fasting, and the other, American overdue to its plenty signifying feasting, would result in a myopic reading. Whereas, the real captivate of the novel lies in the flux shown between fasting and feasting a digesting of the best of both the cultures. the very essence of Indian culture is that we possess a mixed tradition, a melange of elements as disparate as ancient Mughal and contemporary Cocacola American (Salman Rushdie) From food, from food creatures, all creatures come to be. Gorging, disgorging, world come to be. (Taittriya Upanishad) In the Indian cultural scenario, there has been a big outcry about the safeguarding and perpetuation of the Indianness.This implies, apart from * Dr. T. Ravichandran is a Assistant prof in English, Department of Humanities & Social Sciences, lIT Kanpur, India. L UCKNOW ledger OF HUMANITIES VOL. 1, NO. 1, JAN-JUN 2004 Downloaded From IP 109. 161. 128. 204 on dated 23-Jan-2012 Members Copy, Not for mercantile Sale www. IndianJournals. com 22 T. Ravichandran Downloaded From IP 109. 161. 128.national identity, a culture trace of the country and its inhabitants in terms of originality, purity, sanctity, and exclusivity. However, in a decolonised land that confounded much of its originality andexclusivity in cultural conflicts, negotiations and transculturation processes besides gulping down some novelty from the colonisers and other foreign migrants, debating on a monistic culture is inappropriate.

Thursday, January 24, 2019

Norman Foster

Norman FosterNorman Foster is a major contributor to twentieth century architecture both in the westernworld and further afield. After starting his studies in architecture over 50 years ago he has designeda range of buildings (and bridges) and continues to produce outstanding designs today. Aswell asexploring Fosters life this essay will focus primarily on ii of Fosters buildings, creek Vean ingleside in Cornwall and the Willis Building in Ipswich (originally the Willis Faber and Dumas home plate).Born in Manchester on 1 June 1935 to running(a) class p arents, Foster was a bright studentwho after at 10ding a private school and a grammar school was pressurised to leave early in order toearn a living. It wasnt until 1956 after working in a bakery, a city treasurers office, a factory,selling furniture, spending time in the Royal send out Force on national service and studying commerciallaw that he ultimately started his studies in architecture.Graduating from Manchester universit y schoolof architecture and city inventning in 1961, Foster won the Henry fellowship to study at Yaleuniversity where he obtained his masters degree and alike met Richard Rogers, another Britisharchitect whom he became good friends with. In 1963 Rogers and Foster along with their individual wives Su and Wendy formed Team 4, a practice known for its high-tech designs and thegroup arse Creek Vean House. In 1967 Team 4 ended and Foster and Wendy train up FosterAssociates (now Foster and Partners).Between 1968 and 1983 Foster collaborated on a arrive ofprojects including the Samuel Beckett Theatre project with Richard Buckminster Fuller whohappened to be one of his idols. Foster called him a lone voice, whose work with geodesicsdemonstrated how building form could be both economical and ecological. Orientation andbuilding form became, for Foster, touchstones in his design of ecological architecture. Michael J. Crosbie, computer architectureWeek.Foster Associates has produced many well known works much(prenominal) as theSainsbury Centre in Norwich, the Hongkong and Shanghai bank, the Millau Viaduct in France, theBritish Museum Great Court in London and the Swiss Re tower in London to name but a few. OverHistory and Theory of Architecture the years Foster Associates has achieved much than 190 awards and won over 50 competitions forits work, in 1990 Foster was Knighted and in 1999 he was honoured with a life peerage giving himthe title ecclesiastic Foster Of Thames Bank, in the same year he became the 21 st Pritzker ArchitecturePrize laureate.Creak Vean offer was the first work of group Team 4, construct in 1964, it was fitby Marcus Brumwell as a home for himself and his wife who were the parents of Su Rogers. Although Foster has concentrate more on buildings for the workplace, contributes which showsimilarities to Creek Vean are the Jaffe mansion house and Murray Mews which were besides designed by Team4, these buildings are orientated to make the most of their views and feed overlarge slanting fruitcake walls,similar to the glass walk way and large glass walls in Creek Vean. The Willis Faber Dumas Headquarters in Ipswich was built from 1971-1975 as aworkplace for somewhat 1300 employees.Foster has mostly designed buildings for the workplaceand is very good at scheming space for employees to enjoy their surroundings. The three storeybuilding is surrounded by a glass facade, similar to that in some of his later buildings such as HearstTower in New York City, the Swiss Re Headquarters in London, the HSBC UK Headquarters inLondon and City Hall in London. The facade also has a curved appearance, with no hard edges orcorners, similar to the Swiss Re and City Hall buildings, the Ameri ignore Air Museum and the newWillis Headquarters in London.Inside the Willis Faber and Dumas Headquarters escalators lead upthrough the central atrium, in Fosters Hongkong and Shanghai bank he uses a similar approach buton a larger scale with a ten storey atrium and the escalators leading up to the main banking hall. TheIpswich building established a couple of themes that Foster returned to in project after project howthe building meets the ground in an accommodating way how light, views, and the interiorenvironment butt be adjusted and modified and how to introduce green space into an urbanenvironment such as an office building. ArchitectureWeek Creek Vean House is positioned overlooking the Fal estuary in Cornwall on a steepriverbank. The house is made up of ii separate pins at different angles to each other linkedtogether by a long glass-roofed corridor which was utilize as a gallery. One of the blocks is one storeyhigh and contains the bedrooms and studio and the other block is two storeys high and contains theliving room and dining room, the ground floor ooms are cut back into the hillside and the onestorey blocks roof is cover in vegetation, this gives the impression the house is carved into thelandscape. All t he main rooms have large slue doors off the main corridor and are angled so thatthey have the dress hat views possible out over the estuary, this results in the rooms being devotee shapedwith very angular corners. The house is constructed of exposed concrete blocks and reinforcedconcrete slabs, the floors are slate. extracurricular the building, winding steps lead down the slope fromthe access highroad above the house.They step down through the building over the corridor that linksthe two blocks (the corridor has a solid roof at this point), emphasising the split in the two parts ofthe building and continue down through the garden to a boat house on the shore below. The Willis Faber Dumas Headquarters is situated in Ipswich. unlike many office buildingsit is only three storeys high and is beam out to fit in with the shape of the surrounding streets, withthe curved glass facade showing reflections of the surrounding buildings. On entering the buildingthere is a central atrium with escalators leading right up to the rooftop restaurant.Overlooking theatrium are the different storeys with inconsiderate plan office space, the layout of the office space and factthat it is so open plan gives the workplace a very communal feel. orientation is directyou alwaysknow where you are, one can move freely, the sun penetrates everywhere and there are only a fewvisual barriers. Norman Foster. The building was also built with a rooftop garden and aswimming syndicate for the employees to use in their lunch breaks but the swimming pool has sincebeen covered with a glass floor.Around the time Creek Vean was built (1964) James sterling(prenominal) had just built the LeicesterUniversity engineering building (1963). There are similarities mingled with their work, both use a lot ofHistory and Theory of Architecture glass and non standard geometry for walls however where Fosters house tries to blend in with thesurrounding celestial sphere the University building is very bo ld and brutal. Another house built rough thesame period is Hanselmann House in Indiana, 1967 by Michael Graves. This house is verymodernist with lots of open spaces and like Creek Vean it uses steps as a link to the house.VannaVenturi House was built between 1962-1964 by Robert Venturi. Unlike Creek Vean which blends inwith its environment Venturis house really tries to make a statement. Around the time the Willis Faber and Dumas Headquarters was built (1971-1975),The Creek Vean House shows similarities to Frank Lloyd Wrights buildings, particularlyFallingwater built from 1935-1937. Wright designed the house around the surroundings, similar toFoster and so it appears that the house is almost growing out of the persuade beneath it. In both housessteps are used as a passageway from the house down to the water. History and Theory of Architecture

Tuesday, January 22, 2019

Short Talks

2/20/13 English 1102 Introduction I start aside with a couple of stereotypes I recently heard or axiom raft discussing and give my olf pretendions/opinions on why I live lot say things equivalent that. Next is my feelings toward SSU, its a mixed feeling realisticly a love and hate relationship. I end my mindless talks with my first, and definitely not my last, fight I had that occurred in manakinergarten. entirely I can say astir(predicate) that is never and I toy with NEVER touch my crayonsOn Stereotypes- All black passel worry chicken, is one of the most commonly known stereotypes only if recently I ran into rough re eithery interesting stereotypes like all black people give gaps, if your black your house has roaches, black people were more encouraging to America as slaves, all black people are undeserving when theyre babies, and black girls put weave in their hair because they tiret deport any. When I hear people talk like this all I can do is laugh at the ig norance, you set out to be on a whole other level of obtuse to even think like that and then to let that stupidity switching out of your mouth.People let statements like that loll to them and modernize them all roweled up over it but, you put on to place cover charge sometimes and think almost where they get their point of view on African Americans people from. I find that a lot of it comes from the older generations in their family where the racism is so far alive and brewing, and once again I laugh because it is 2013 and if you still feel African Americans should be slaves and theyre ignorant monkeys then go forrard and do you.As far as those other statements though I have a gap I know plenty of black people who dont, my house doesnt have roaches and never will, I wouldnt be a good slave because Im dash too strong willed and I only work for pay, I was a charming baby, and plenty of African American girls have long beautiful hair. On Savannah State- You are so rachet w ith your power outs, bleak wifi, bad cable connection, rude faculty and staff, and rising tuition thats mostly spill to athletic fees for teams that arent even good. -AnonymousI love my SSU but I hate it too, it has so much potential to be a great school but there has to be some major(ip) changes first. The first thing that the people over the school should come a good look into is the way a lot of their staff members act towards current and future students some of them are rude and nasty every day to everybody. Next, they should move to the problem professors, which are the ones who the students complain the most about, they have the highest rate of students dropping out, and they have the highest failure rate.Lastly, would be what they use the compute for the school on I feel some of the funding for legitimate things could be used for more important things that the school needs, like a full time doctor for example. On Self-Respect- How can you expect anybody to lever you if youre half naked on Facebook for likes? Girls are always let out on Facebook, twitter, instagram, and other social sites about how they want a real man but yet they have all of these lewd, distasteful pictures up for the whole internet to see.On top of that they get mad when they get a bunch of sexual comments and messages, its kind of baffling because what else would they expect to get if thats how they present themselves. On the struggle- Its hard being in college with no form of income coming in, eating ramen noodles every night, and borrowing musical theme from other students in class. Being broke makes your refund check, no subject area how big or small, look like a little objet dart of heaven.Refund check time is when all of the ballers come out, when the mall is packed with college students going on a spending spree for themselves and for the homies who dont get a refund, and when all the parties you go to have a bunch of intoxicant and weed but a month later its back ward to the struggle. The month after refund is when people go back to pray for things, back to one or two bottles of liquor at the party, and back to those stupid ramen noodles. On my first fight- I remember when I was a little, sweet, loving, only child living in Yonkers, NY.I got everything I wanted and I never had to share anything, unless I wanted to and I was always kind enough to do it anyway. My mother came home one day with these refreshed glitter crayons for me, since I love to draw and color and I loved them. I brought them to school the next day to show my best hotshot and we colored with them during breakfast, before class. One of the older students saw us and came over, she took all of my friends crayons and pushed her out of her seat and proceeded to reach for mine.I grabbed my things, backed away and told her she couldnt have my crayons. I saw a little bit of rage in her eyes as her friends laughed at her for not being able to take a kindergarteners crayons so she pushed me and went to take my things. I wanted to sit there and cry like my friend was doing but instead I got mad, I got real mad just thinking about the situation my mother just bought me some new special glitter crayons and some hood rat with no manners was going to have them for deliver wasnt sitting right with me.I got up and punched her in the face and I could tell by the look in her eyes that it hurt, so I punched her again and again and again I even started to scratch at her face. Her friends who were at first laughing saw how serious I was about those crayons and went to get the schools officer, who eventually stopped me. I didnt get in trouble that day but I got a newly found confidence that would lead me into trouble with anyone willing to plunder the wrong path with me.

Sunday, January 20, 2019

Gender Justice: What Does It Look Like? Essay

The contemporary debate on the term grammatical sex activity evaluator has various di handssions. There dedicate been philosophical discussions on rights and responsibilities, sympathetic sureness and autonomy political discussions on democratization and right to vote puff up-grounded discussions on the access to umpire. Typically, the term is apply to de n unrivaled mechanisms to promote womens position in society and their access to affectionate parameters like health, literacy, development, line of merchandise and economicalal independence. While the conventional attitude has been to assume the traditional immemorial values as normal, more radical approaches mother tried to bribe the norms and challenge political term quo. The term is increasingly being use in place of gender equality and gender mainstreaming as the latter(prenominal) terms overhear more or slight failed to communicate (Goetz, 2007, p20). In essence, gender honourableice is the ending of ine qualities between men and women as vigorous as the process to bring about the change.The Beijing Declaration and chopine for Action at the Fourth unify Nations General universe of discourse collection on Women in 1995 required member countries to ensure fundamental rights of deuce men and women in all argonas. It was recognized that there is a object of marginalization of womens issues as a separate and somewhat inferior status. Gender mainstreaming by which all strategies and policies by member countries would view as a gender perspective was agreed upon (UNRISD, 2000).The realization that economic and social rights were in situation linked with political and civil rights were also translated in the field of operation of gender justice. The dichotomies of rights in the context of womens rights surfaced aggressively through the petitions for mainstreaming of gender issues, that is the conviction that womens rights were no different from humane rights in other spheres li ke health, education, poverty-strickendom and justice. It was realized that without the right to legal claims, women could non have a bun in the oven to fuck off justice in settlements like land, stead or divorce. Without literacy and education, women did not have the understanding of their rights. And, women had a right to motherhood as untold as the choice for the number of children to bear and the right to a heavy life (UNRISD, 2000).The conservative approach to gender issues, however, concerned themselves with womens unavoidably and not rights. There was a deliberate denial of approaching problems of inner and reproductive health, or lack of access to safe and clean alcoholism water, sanitation, healthcare and education as matters of infrastructure inadequacies and hence denial of human rights and distri stillive justice. Womens activists, on the other hand, considered womens legal rights and the indivisibility of human rights in gender lines as fundamental to enable w omen to participate amply in the economic and social framework (UNRISD, 2000).Gender is a social construct that defines roles and responsibilities of men and women, regulating the role of wind upuality, choice of business organisations by men and women and the stereotypes. Typically, men hold positions of power even in democracies. Only 14 percent of the countries have achieved 30 percent representation of women in the parliament, as set out in the Beijing Declaration of 1995. Women have slight access to and control of economic powers, rewarded for less remuneration than men for the said(prenominal) work, treated differently in global trade.Women receive less education than men have to walk long distances to collect drinking water, thereby falling vulnerable to effect sexual and reproductive health problems upshot in illness and disability to women more number of women being victims of human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS because of restrictions on women being able to practice safe sex and having access to HIV testing and care services women become victims of gender-based violence and cultural taboos. On the whole, the mainstreaming of gender has generally failed because the approach towards integrating women in the society does not challenge existing power equalitys. Women have keep to be offered stereotyped jobs, not receiving equal training and education and short resources for womens mainstreaming (Oxfam).By the cartridge clip the issue for gender justice came up for a review in the Special Session for the Beijing +5 in 2005, the humanness had greatly changed. Political and economic changes around the world had shattered the faith in the current state of gender justice measures implemented in various countries. After the end of the Cold War, women had suffered disproportionately more from conflicts in postcolonial societies, calling for attention towards gender justice. In 2004, the United Nations Security Council passed the landmark resoluti on 1325, calling on governments to protect rights of women in conflict areas. Despite the resolution, however, women watchd to be victims of domestic violence and despoil in conflict areas (MacMohan, 2004). For umpteen, the failure of gender mainstreaming was the result of its de-politicization, by which it was aimed to be achieved merely in an instrumentalist manner. It was not possible to find a way to implement gender-mainstreaming program without challenging the political status quo.through and through the 1990s, there was hope for increased gender justice, emanating from the establishment of democracies in legion(predicate) countries. Womens rights did witness considerable improvement, disdain the conditions did not challenge the status quo because of the low base of the 1980s. From a global average of 6 percent womens representation in national parliaments in the 1980s, the share grew to 12 percent in the 1990s (UNRISD, 2000). Women have become more combat-ready in mains tream politics as well as in lead astray root politics. Although womens issues have become important and womens groups have become more vocal, gender issues are decorous even less of concern in mainstream politics, mainly priapic, of most countries, particularly in the non-democratic world.In the Islamist world, typically, womens participation has been all the more noticeably absent. Although there is the underlying assumption that debates about democracy are gender-neutral issues, struggles for citizenship rights in countries like Iran have been naturally inclusive of women (UNRISD, 2000). Among political parties, the African National Congress (ANC) has been one of the most progressive ones with regard to gender issues. Yet, gender justice that has been achieved in South Africa has been a domain of the elite society.In the new millennium, gender justice has remained unfulfilled. The world is witnessing a different economic power equation than in the previous decade. While gende r mainstreaming has lost its political rigorousness as a means for social trans determineation, the economic and political mood has become all the more unfavorable for gender justice.With globalization, the traditional economic relationships, including gender relationships, are crumbling down. The partical patriarchy, dependent on the male property ownership and family mentalityship notion, had given rise to the urban fordist gender regime male bread earner/ female house maker in the western United Statesern world in the 1950s and 1960s, also duplicated in some move of the developing world. Economic development and increased competition has meant that the male payment earnings are not sufficient for the increasing consumption patterns. Brenner (2003) notes that internalisation of women in the workforce and their increased access to education and literacy has brought feminism in the forefront of organized politics (cited in Dhawan, p2). Women activists are not increasin gly becoming more vocal in national politics but also on global issues. At the same time, marginalized women are becoming even more vulnerable to global capital reorganization.Worldwide, women are lining the brunt of longer working hours, impoverishment, economic insecurity and forced migration and urbanization. Working program women find themselves in the crossroad of development and reactionary policy and continue to remain, if not become increasingly so, victims of fundamentalism, economic insecurity and a tortuous web of power relations (Kaplan, 1999, cited in Dhawan, p3). Pressures of structural adjustments imposed on many an(prenominal) Third World countries have given rise to fundamentalism, which stop from the traditional patriarchal powers and victimize women even more. The emerging capitalist structures of many of these societies have eroded the protection of the traditional patriarchy that women used to have earlier.Women in the Third World are at the crosshead of t wo powerful forces one, the nationalist agenda that is inherently masculine in which women are expected to follow traditional roles while the men are free to participate in the political arena, and two, global capital, which forces women to participate in the economic field, overpowering the nationalist agenda. While in the west, women of color feel that the libber agenda is essentially white-oriented, in the Third World, the political interests of working class women are marginalized. Over and above this, women from the South are dominated over by the women of North (Mohanty, 1999, cited in Dhawan, p4). As Saunders (2002) says,What is clear is that from the very inception of women, gender and development the womens point of view was not shady but heterogeneous and multiple. This continue to constitute a challenge to the overriding western feminist will to enforce a gynocentric philosophy and practice, which centers and magnifies patriarchal power and marginalizes other vert ical social relations (quoted in Varela, p2).The potentiality of western feminists over the Third World is evident in George pubic hairs claim that the US War on Afghanistan was aimed to free the women from oppression. The demand for such freedom was generated essentially by feminist organizations in the west since 1997 to deny investments to the Taliban. Such claims, however, ignored that the Taliban initially drew its powers from the West itself, which used it as a force to resist Soviet Russias occupation of the country.The system of micro-credit financing in the Third World has been another form of denying gender justice. There has been a proliferation of such institutions in the Third World and the most successful ones have been the ones that provide small loans to women. These NGOs typically receive their funds from the World Bank and USAID (Dhawan). Although these organizations apparently target womens economic independence, what they essentially achieve is to integrate wom en with the informal economy all the more, by exploiting their children, particularly daughters, to get the work done. Besides, the micro-credit institutions reinforce the traditional values of righteousness and maternal virtues in order to bypass the role of government and correct development. Credit-baiting has been a means to turn gender justice on its head and make it an instrument for developing and imperialism (Spivak, 1999, cited in Dhawan).Most feminists find the role of woman in Western culture is generally associated with the voice of the another(prenominal), that of the inconsequential or the child. This is a voice, he stresses, that the dominant mores of western societies time and again disregarded or took no notice of. Even today, despite its nearly two hundred years of history, womens literature, enriched and endowed with many attributes and critical insights, is still branded as the voice of the man-hating feminists. Theorists like Helene Cixous and Julien Kriste va take on to answer the questions that many women writers may have themselves tried to find.Why have womens voices been missing in a plentiful practice of actors line that crosses over two thousand years? Is it just because women are not allowed in the realm of education that would have enabled them into the speech-society? Or, is there in fact a separate way of communication in the womans world, in a unique phrase, which has made it hard for women to connect with the world-at-large (Jasken)? either woman has known the torture of beginning to speak aloud, laments Cixous and says, amount of money beating as if to break, occasionally falling into loss of language, ground and language slipping out from under her, because for woman speaking even just opening her mouth in public is something rash, a transgression (Cixous, 1975).Thus, the conception of gender justice is complex and eternal. While the political aspects of womens exploitation and the effects of globalization ar e understandable, the attitude towards women has remained patriarchal. Even though womens voices have been raised louder in the present days, they are still a marginalized lot at home, in national politics as well as in the global area.Works CitedBrenner, Johannna (2003). Transnational Feminism and the press for Global arbiter, upstart Politics, 9(2)Cixous, Helene, Sorties, in The freshlyly Born Woman (1975, English translation, 1984). Retrieved from http//www.ac.wwu.edu/pamhard/338Cixous.htmDhawan, Nikita, Transnational libber Alliances and Gender Justice, Second life-sustaining Studies Conference, stadium of Justice Feminist Perspectives on Justice, http//www.mcrg.ac.in/Spheres/Nikita.pdfGoetz, A-M. (2007). Gender Justice, Citizenship and Entitlements Core Concepts, Central Debates and New Directions for Research, in Gender Justice, Citizenship and information, eds. M. Mukhopadhyay and N. Singh, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, pp. 15-57Julie Jasken, He lene Cixous. Retrieved from http//www.engl.niu.edu/wac/cixous_intro.htmlKaplan, Caren, et al, ed. (1999). amidst Women and Nation Nationalism, Transnational Feminism, and the State, Durham, NC, Duke University PressMcMohan, Robert (2004). World Conference Seeks to Assert Gender Justice In Conflict Zones. Second Critical Studies Conference. Spheres of Justice Feminist Perspectives on Gender. Retrieved from http//www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2004/09/61093992-24a5-4cad-993d-ff92ba6f264a.htmlMohanty, Chandra Talpade (2003). Feminism Without Borders Decolonizing Theory, Practicing Solidarity. London Duke University PressSaunders, Kriemild (2002). Introduction Towards a Deconstructive Post-development criticism. In Kriemild Saunders (ed). Feminist Post-Development Thought. Rethinking Modernity, Post-Colonialism and Representation. London/ New York. Zed Books. Page 1-38Spivak, Gayatri, Chakravarty (1999). Critique of Postcolonial Reason. London/ New York Routledge.United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) (2000). Gender Justice, Development and Rights Substantiating Rights in a Disabling Environment, 3 June. Retrieved from http//www.pogar.org/publications/other/unrisd/gender.pdfVarela, maria do Mar Castro. Envisioning Gender Justice. Second Critical Studies Conference, Sphere of Justice Feminist Perspectives on Justice. Retrieved from http//www.mcrg.ac.in/Spheres/Maria.pdf

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

An Attempted Robbery

One evening when the sunbathe was or so to set, my mother asked me to go and buy some onions and salt from the near sundry shop. The shop is run by Samy, a jovial middle-age Indian bit with a huge pot-belly. His wife and two two-year-old children, a boy and a girl, help him run the shop.It was almost completely grimy when I reached the shop. Samy had switched on the lights in his sm both in all but adequately stocked shop. He was al peerless at the time and I was the only customer. Samy greeted me with a huge smile. I always wanted to ask him how he unbroken his teeth so sparkling white but I was horror-struck to ask. Anyway I told him what I wanted to buy and he went ab come in acquire the things for me.Next door to Samys shop is a drinking chocolate shop run by another Indian man. It was still establish at the time. From the coffee shop emerged two men. They came into Samys shop and I could smell the overpowering smell of beer coming from these two men. Both of them were young but from the way they half-walked half-staggered into the shop it was obvious they had a bit overly much to drink. I kept a safe distance from these men. It is never a good idea to be near drunks. One never knows what they will do undermentioned.True enough, my caution was justified, for the next endorsement, without any warning, unmatchable of the men swept a pile of tinned goods from a tabulate onto the floor. In a second the neat rows were reduced to utter chaos. The man who did it roared out in laughter. I could see Samys anger rising. He raised his voice. As if in reply to his retort, the two men started cheering obscenities at him. Then suddenly a knife appeared in one of the mens hand. The man that held the knife was small and wiry and judgment from the muscles in his hand I had no doubt he was actually strong.The knife-man lunged and in a flash he had the point of his knife at Samys throat. Samy froze and his baptismal font paled. I was so overwhelmed by th e suddenness of events that the next thing I knew I could not move my hands, nor the other move of my body. I was held in a vice-like grip by the other man. I did not even see him coming. I struggled but all I could do was to make the grip tighten more. I got difficult to breathe.I heard a lot of shouting and I could see the knife-man slapping Samy. reluctantly Samy opened the drawer where he kept his cash and the knife-man leaned over and make a grab for the cash. That was a big mistake he made. For a fleeting moment his knife was forgotten and in that short moment Samy seized his chance. Samys huge right hand came down hard over the back of the leaning mans head. The force of the blow carried the mans head right down hard onto the table. There was a sickening thud when face met table. The knife-mans head rebounded like a rubber ball from the table and I could see blood all over his face. He was badly hurt. The knife dropped from lifeless hands on the floor.Moving with surprising speed, Samy grabbed a bottle of tomato plant ketchup from a shelf and broke it over the mans head. Red tomato ketchup splattered all over the place. I could not disunite how much of the red stuff on the mans face was his own blood, or tomato ketchup. Slowly he sank to the floor and gravel still.I struggled to get loose. I felt so easy. Then I realized that hands no longer held me. I turned near and saw the dark figure of a man running out of the shop and disappearing into the semi-darkness. I was virtually to go in by-line but Samy stopped me. He said it was useless pursuing individual in the dark. Moreover the man could be armed and that would be dangerous.decade minutes later the shop was filled with curious people all wanting to know what had happened. The knife-man was herded into a police car. Samy and I had to give our statements to the police. When I arrived home half an hour later, my mother was waiting impatiently for me. She was about to lecture me about being so sl ow in getting a few things but she stopped and listened dumbfounded while I related the recent events to her. When I finished she smiled and said that she was glad I was not injured.

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Anita Roddick (The Body Shop) Essay

Inspiring profiles and best radiation diagrams for entrepreneurs Twenty-six years ago the Brighton level Argus ran a story on a dispute between 2 funeral parlour owners who were upset about a new cosmetics dress mark which had opened up next door. It wasnt the nature of the fear they were acquire hot under the collar about, but its name. They thought the green pasture front emblazoned with the words bole wander in gold flip might put off prospective customers. They wanted me to change my shop front which I had just spent 870 of my 4,000 loan on, recalls Roddick.My smart guide was to call the Argus and tell them I was being threatened by Mafia under considerrs who wanted to close me down. The press loved it. The story of the beleaguered hotshot mum with the house in hock trying to support her two kids with a bootstrapping start-up worked a treat. The small splash made Body buy at a cause celebre, won plenty of local support and won an important battle to get the business o ff the ground. The anecdote is a small aside, recounted with a chuckle and a hint of outrage in a long interview. But although the battles got much full-sizeger as Roddick grew her business into the multinational retailer it is today, anyone with heretofore a passing familiarity with the Body cheat story will instantly recognise the defining characteristics of its fiery sore founder in those early days of the business Ethical Anita versus the big bad world.There has never been any compromise in Roddicks views on how business should be done this is why her husband Gordon was tasked with discourse the City suits (they didnt like me talking about sexual stress at work) and why she stepped away from the business in 1998 when the shareholders give tongue to a campaigning chief executive was non what they wanted for Body Shop. You might think after thirty years of business and the solacement of a healthy shareholding and a wedge of cash in the desire Roddicks hunger for campaign ing might have diminished. But subaltern has changed since 1976. Her latest venture, a publishing start-up, produces books on ethical matters. It promotes her on the harangue circuit and all the profits going into campaigning. The only difference is right away she occupies the position of an icon for women and female entrepreneurs something I dont take lightly And there is still plenty to shout about when it comes to what she sees as an ethical vacuum in business today.Suffocation She rails against the suffocation of UK businesses as we outsource to cheaper countries the failure to preserve the pauperisations of shareholders in national companies the lack of respect for the responsibility of business to the community at bounteous the ongoing need for women to conform to a male template in order to succeed the lack of recognition of the apprise that employees bring to a business. Being ethical in business is not about swelled stuff away Roddick is emphatic about what this me ans in practice not sandals, beards and group hugs in the boardroom but the adoption of saucer-eyed moral values. People use the excuse of business to leave their morality at the front door and I dont eff how they get away with it.But can ethical business in reality fit in with the cut-throat world of today? Her business, she says, is living proof. She describes Body Shop as a great business experiment which is still proving a point you can run an entrepreneurial business, provide a pass away to shareholders while campaigning on ethical issues and placing a high value on human capital. Being ethical in business is not about giving stuff away. Its about your relationship with your employees, its about the aesthetics of the workplace and its about communication, says Roddick. There is no reason why the workplace cant be a genuine creative place, why there cant be flexitime, why there cant be transparency and even good manners. If Roddick doesnt sound like a business char its bec ause she has never claimed to be one. She puts her success down to a need for a livelihood and sees herself as the accidental entrepreneur.

Fiscal Policy Essay

The United States blows various policies non save at home but abroad. It has been a powerhouse for many years, and its strengths and weaknesses impact other countries. The dearth, prodigality, and debt are three major areas influencing these policies. These three factors get under ones skin a huge impact on many areas we will discuss. These include taxpayers, the forthcoming of Social Security and Medicare users, the unemployed, a University of phoenix student, the United States pecuniary story on an inter state of matteral direct, a domestic motorcarmotive manufacturing, or exporter, Italian clothing company, or importer and Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Italian raiment CompanyThe United States dearth, surplus, and debt play a factor a mapping in the conduct of business with any Italian clothing company. Italy relies on its manufacturing exports to provide for its parsimony, and the United States ranks as one of one of its prolific export partners. According to pro vidence Watch Content (2010), Italys famous brands much(prenominal) as Armani, Valentino, Versace, and Prada have created a niche in the orbiculate grocery where there is a huge demand for proud quality and master goods. According to Colander (2010), the United States has run a trade shortage in the last 40 years. If the U.S. is ineffective to purchase from Italy, this impacts the Italian economy. monetary Reputation of the United States on an International Level The U.S.s deficit, surplus and debt impact the financial reputation of the United States on an international level because these are factors that promote or slow economic developing, future prosperity and foreign policy. The United States debt is the largest in the world for a single country, which has caused the financial reputation and creditworthiness of the United States to suffer (Amadeo, 2013).The dollar is considered to be a global currency and the one primarily used in international proceeding and trade. When foreign investors lose confidence in the U. S. Governments baron to manage the budget and pay off their debt, they raise interest rank on loans for the added risk. Government is no longer able to borrow at affordable order. Demand for investing in U.S. treasuries diminishes, lowering bond ratings and the judge of the dollar. When the value of the dollar decreases, the dollar becomes less desirable, and foreign investors get paid back in currency that is worth less, which damages the special manipulation of the dollar and the financial reputation of the United States (Boccia, 2013). Tax PayersTo repay the nations debt budget makers frequently visit the option of higher(prenominal) tax revenue of the wealthy and businesses. Individuals and Corporations fear this option because staffing and insuring becomes much costly hurting the john line. A contributing factor to the current state of the U.S. economy is the slack decline in taxes that the wealthy must pay.The U.S. must reduce the deficit or the debt will grow, and could become very costly to taxpayers possibly having to stumble in their own pockets to pay off the debt. When the economy is doing well and the unemployment rates are low, the economy should be in decent standing payable to the fact that the newly employed taxpayers have once again began stipendiary into the taxes, but they also are stimulating the economy by disbursal their money and paying sales taxes. Future Social Security & angstrom Medicare UsersAccording to the 2010 Trustees key the programs face massive permanent annual deficits starting in just five years. Coupled with a Congressional budget Office report predicting Social Security and Medicare expenditures to increase around 75% by the year 2030, economists seem to have no certain answers now (John, 2010). Social Security and Medicare benefits have their own funds so they do not affect one another nor does any other debt affect them. Social funds such as these ha ve their own championship scheme thats not tied to other federal bodies or accounts (Mankiw, 2011). A domestic railroad carmotive manufacturing (exporter)The effect that the U.S.s deficit, surplus and debt have on a domestic automotive manufacturing exporter starts with the decline in auto sales. The deficit in the economy is followed by a decline in spending and lowered auto sales. A decline in auto sales reduces employment due to lower demand and adds to trade deficits. When the U.S. is unable to sell to other countries we are forced into a surplus. Businesses fail starring(p) to government bailouts. The government spends money going into debt to save these companies. Unemployed IndividualsThe deficit affects unemployed individuals because the people who need help, cannot get it, or cannot get nice to help supplementing their income until they find employment. A surplus provides help with unemployment benefits WIC and other programs. Debt leads to higher taxes, making sust ainability difficult for themselves and their families. University of capital of Arizona StudentThe deficit affects a University of Phoenix student because funding for financial aid could be compromised leading to more private loans. Loans become expensive, costing the student more. The surplus affects a University of Phoenix student by providing additional resources for school funding and programs. Debt means not having enough money to fund schooling leading to higher personalized debt. GDPGDP is affected by deficits, levels of debt and budget surpluses. When the U.S. runs a high deficit, debt levels increase putting pressure on economic growth. The Reinhart/Rogoff research reason out that when a countrys gross debt exceeds 90% of GDP, median growth rates fall by one percent, and average growth locomote considerably more (Sahadi, 2013). Budget surpluses impact GDP growth positively by providing additional resources for the government to invest in the countrys economy. Conclusio nThe U.S. governments handling of federal budgets affects individuals and businesses alike intercontinental from students to major corporations. Deficits lead to debt burdening the economy, negatively impacting nearly every aspect of the financial world. A surplus shows financial responsibility positively affecting the economy and creating prosperity.ReferencesAmadeo, Kimberly (Feb. 2013). What the U.S. Debt Is. Retrieved from http//useconomy.about.com/od/fiscalpolicy/p/US_Debt.htmBoccia, Romina (Feb.2013). How the United States High Debt Will Weaken TheEconomy And Hurt Americans. Retrieved from http//www.heritage.org/research/reports/2013/02/how-the-united-states-high-debt-will-weaken-the-economy-and-hurt-americans Colander, D. C. (2010). Macroeconomics (8th ed.). Boston, MA McGraw-Hill/Irwin.Italy Trade, Exports and Imports. (2010, March 27). Retrieved from http//www.economywatch.com/world_economy/italy/export-import.html John, D. C. (2010). 2010 Social Security Trustees Report C ontinues to Show the Urgency of Reform. Retrieved from http//www.heritage.org/research/reports/2010/08/2010-social-security-trustees-report-continues-to-show-the-urgency-of-reform Mankiw, G. (2011). Principles of Microeconomics (6th ed.). Mason, OH Cengage Learning Sahadi, J. (2013, April 17). Debts impact on growth Latest study doesnt settle debate. Retrieved from http//money.cnn.com/2013/04/17/ parole/economy/debt-deficits/index.html

Monday, January 14, 2019

Teaching Speaking

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND SCIENCE, youth AND SPORT OF UKRAINE IVAN FRANKO NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF LVIV ENGLISH DEPARTMENT Speaking and Writing. Common and typical features in T all(prenominal)ing PRESENTED BY Suzan Al-Jholani a fifth year schoolchild of the side De pop outment SUPERVISED BY Sa nonska L. G. associate professor of the side of meat Department LVIV 2012 Contents Introduction. 3 I. Common features in didactics oration and composition.. II. Distinctive features in educational activity public speak and paternity Conclusion.. References Communication amongst humans is an extremely complex and dynamical phenomenon. But there are plastered generalizations that good deal be make intimately the majority of communicative cases and these will meet a peculiar(a) relevance for the learning and teaching method of dustups. in that respect are countless reasons for parley between souls they extraditeiness to say something, they save some communicative purpose , they deficiency to get some information, etc.It is essential to realize that these generalizations do not entirely apply to spoken new-madeborns show they characterize pen communication as well. Speaking and penning are called productive skills beca rehearse they involve language merchandise, as opposed to listening and reading, which are receptive skills 1, 46-47. Common features in teaching speaking and writing The productive skills of writing and speaking take aim more than(prenominal) distinctive than plebeian features. However, there are number of language production processes which have to be g superstar through whichever medium we are workings in.In exhibition for communication to be successful we have to structure our confabulation in such a way that it will be silent by our listeners and readers. In speech this often involves following of conversational patterns and the handling of lexical phrases. For the part of writing it has to be both coherent and c ohesive. tenacious writing makes sense because you keep follow the sequence of ideas and points. Cohesion is more technical matter since it is here that we concentrate on the various lingual ways of connecting ideas across phrases and sentences 2, 246.Both teaching writing and speaking involves following the rules of communication. There are three areas of rules that should be considered * Sociocultural rules speakers from similar friendly backgrounds hit the hay how to speak to each other in terms of how formal to be, what winning of language they atomic number 50 use, how loud to speak, or how close to stand to each other. * Turn-taking in any conversation decisions have to be taken about when each person should speak. * Rules for writing writing has rules too, which requisite to be acknowledge and either be followed or purposively flouted.We have to take into the account the writing style and the style of writing 2, 246. One of the reasons that people shadower operate at heart sociocultural rules is because they know about assorted styles, and realize different indite and spoken genres. This depends on the aim of communication, on the recipient and setting. In order to speak and write at different levels of intimacy learners fate trust in different genres and different styles so that their level increases they can neuter the grammar, functions ,and lexis that they can use .It is vital, therefore, that if the coursebook does not tender a satisfactory come in of such genre-based activities teachers should supply it themselves 2,247. Teachers have to teach how to interact with the audience. Part of our speaking proficiency depends upon our talent to speak differentially, depending upon our audience, and upon the way we absorb their reaction and react to it in some way or other. Part of our writing ability depends upon our ability to change our style and structure to suit the person or people we are writing for 2, 248.When speakers or wr iters of their own or of a contrary language do not know a word or just cannot remember it, they may employ some or all of the following strategies to resolve the difficulty they are escorting * Improvising speakers sometimes cause any word or phrase that they can come up with in the forecast that it is about right. * Discarding when speakers simply cannot find words for what they want to say, they may discard the thought that they cannot put into words. Foreignising when operating in a foreign language, speakers (and writers) sometimes choose a word in a language they know well (such as their archetypical language) and foreignise it in the hope that it will be equivalent to the meaning they wish to express in the foreign language. * Paraphrasing speakers sometimes paraphrase. Such lexical substitution or surplusage gets many speakers out of trouble, though it can make communication lifelong and more convoluted 2, 249.To prevent problems that students may encounter magic sp ell better speaking and writing skills teachers have to follow certain principles. In the first-year place, they inquire to match the tasks they ask students to perform with their language level. This government agency ensuring that they have the minimum language they would accept to perform such a task. Secondly, teachers need to ensure that there is a purpose to the task and that students are witting of this. They should overly remember that students who are not utilize to speaking or writing spontaneously need to be helped to cultivate such habits.Teachers should not expect instant fluency and creativity instead they should build up students confidence step by step giving them restricted tasks first before prompting them to be more and more spontaneous later. Finally, teachers need to assess the problems caused by the language they need, and the difficulties which the exit or the genre king create 2,251-253. To make students inspired teacher has to choose interesting to pic and create interest in it. It is also important to leave the topics they offer them so that they cater for the smorgasbord of interests within the class.It is also vitally important to vary the genres teachers ask their students to work with if we want them to gain confidence in writing and speaking in different situations. Distinctive features in speaking and writing teaching One of the reasons that teaching writing is so different from teaching speech is that two types of discourse differ in their radical characteristics. Differences between them imply different types of exercises which focus on different aspects of language and bespeak different levels of correctness 1,52.Writing regards a greater degree of accuracy, and is in many ways the more difficult skill to learn. For a start, the written form is visible and faultings are seen. With speaking, students often make slips of the tongue-they have said something wrong, save if they could hear a recording of what they said, they could correct the mistake themselves. Written task on the one hand often require accuracy and formal language. Because they recognize this, many students feel chthonic mechanical press when writing.However, with writing students can proof-read and self-correct. They can go more slowly and carefully than when they are speaking. It is an important skill teachers must teach students-read what they have written 4,182. Punctuation is another factor absent from speaking. Increasingly these days, one baron question the grandness of correct punctuation, returnd whereas one can charter that the correct use of colons or semi-colons is not really so important, sure enough the correct use of capitalization and question marks, for example, does matter 4, 182.Spelling may also cause problems, something which mother-tongue speakers have difficulty with. Again, people differ in their views of the importance of correct spelling, entirely the fact re chief(prenominal)s that, teac hers have to recognize what is correct writing, and what is incorrect. If they cannot recognize a mistake, then they cannot correct it 4, 182. With Writing, students do not have to tutelage themselves with aspects of pronunciation, or being fluent. Those students who are much more interested in accuracy than fluency, arc often very good when writing.It is very common to find students who have had accuracy-based language learning, writing extremely well and accurately, but that is difficult for them to express themselves orally 1, 53. Writing tends to be more sparing in its use of the language. There are no hesitators (mmm, er, well, etc. ) that bed clothing our conversation. Written language is direct and efficient. The writer suffers from the disadvantage of not getting immediate feedback from the reader and sometimes getting no feedback at all.In writing students can not use intonation or stress, and facial expression, apparent motion and body movement. These disadvantages h ave to be compensated for the greater clarity and by the use of grammatical and stylistic techniques for focusing attention on main points, etc. Most importantly there is greater need for logical organization in set up of writing than there is in a conversation, for the reader has to understand what has been written without asking for clarification or relying on the writers tone of voice or expression 1,53.When teaching writing, therefore, there are special considerations to be taken into account which admit the organizing of sentences into paragraphs, how paragraphs are joined together, and the general organization of ideas into a coherent piece of discourse 1,54. inventive writing blueprint is a critical part of learning a written language. Writing can be encourage through poetry, stories, plays and dialogues, but it important that students be engaged and interested in the writing projects.Pen pal letters between students can help to drive the interests of a class as they l earn written communication with their peers utilizing the new language. The objective of such a project would be for students to learn how to use appropriate language and produce suitable letters that can be sent as a correspondence, but can also be used as effective evaluation and grading tools. Speaking a language involves using thecomponents correctly making the right sounds, choosing theright words and getting constructions grammatically correct.Pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary taskswill focus on the needfor utilization in language accuracy. At the same time, we also need toget a clear message across and thisinvolves choosing appropriate confine or ideas to suit a situation, e. g. deciding what is polite or what efficacy appear rude, how to interrupt or how to participate in a conversation. solely this involves practice in language fluency. Speaking requires thinking on the spot, practice and exposure to the language over time. Speakers have a great array of expressiv e possibilities at their command.Apart from the actual words they use they can vary their intonation and stress which helps them to show which part of what they are saying is nigh important. By varying pitch and intonation their voice can clearly convey their attitude to what they are saying. They can indicate interest or lack of it. At any point in speech event speakers can rephrase what they are saying they can speed up or slow down. This will often be done in response to the feedback they are getting from their listeners who will show through variety of gestures , expressions and interruptions that they do not understand.And in a face to face fundamental interaction the speaker can use a whole range of facial expressions, gestures and general body to help to convey the message. Developing speaking skills in the schoolroom can allow a wide variety of activities. Controlled lessons that include drilling and pre-planned, question and answer prompts can help students develop skil ls under the teachers watchful eye. Guided activities such as dialogues and role-play scenarios, while based on accuracy, do allow for more creativity and individual exploration with the language.Exact language may not be as controlled in such activities and students have a chance to practice their language with a bit more freedom. Students improve their formal speech when teachers provide insights on how to organize their ideas for intromission. Students can give better speeches when they can organize their presentation in a variety of different ways, including sequentially, chronologically and thematically. They need practice in organizing their speech around problems and solutions, causes and results, and similarities and differences.After deciding about the best means of organization, they can practice speeches with another student or with the whole class. Teachers can also help students adapt their speeches and informal talks so as to correspond to the intended audience, the i nformation to be communicated, and the circumstances of the occasion at which they will speak. The teachers can illustrate how well-known speakers have adapted their presentations in ways to suit these different circumstances Students may enjoy speaking about their personal experiences.When given this opportunity, they can benefit from instruction in the elements of good story-telling. Both teachers and students can provide suggestions for students speeches. In constructively criticizing others, learners can learn to apply criteria for good speech and employ tactful social skills. In doing so, they can increase and improve their own speaking skills. Students can also learn speaking and social skills by suggesting possible improvements to one anothers practice speeches. Positive experiences in speaking can lead to greater skills and confidence in speaking in lie of larger groups.These activities help students to become familiar and comfortable with the new language. Creative communi cation involves more fluency-based activities that can really enable students to utilize their originative thinking and language skills. Activities of this type might include discussions, simulations and communication games, but they may also include real- life experiences such as a field trip to a restaurant or a node visitor in the classroom, providing opportunities for students to use the new language in a less controlled setting.Careful planning and preparation are a necessity for this material body of learning experience, and such lessons must be followed-up with some form of judging or evaluation tool to determine the effectiveness of the experience, but the benefits to the student can be significant. Not only are students making connections between the language they are learning in the classroom and the language used in the real world, they are practicing their skills and developing their own methods for utilizing and retaining the new language.In affinity to speaking sk ills, the development of writing skills involves many of the same difficulties and some surplus challenges, including differences in grammar and vocabulary use, spelling, structure, punctuation and others. A variety of games in the classroom and as pair, small-group or homework activities, can be utilized to provide controlled practice and experience with writing. Crosswords, word finds, gap fills and story boards are but a few of the games and activities that can be adapted for teaching writing skills including vocabulary, spelling, grammar and pronunciation.Developing useful and effective language skills requires practice and experience, from controlled lessons to authentic, real-life experiences. The basic building blocks of a language are critical to the learning process but serviceable experience, creative exploration, and opportunities to practice in less controlled activities can help to marry the various parts of language acquisition into a solid discernment of the new l anguage and how it can be used. Whether speaking or writing, students need to be able to activate the knowledge they have learned in the classroom in order to communicate successfully in their new language.Conclusions Being productive skills, speaking and writing involve language production. They have both common and distinctive features in teaching although distinctive have majority in number. For communication to be successful (either oral or written one) students have to know how to structure the discourse, to be aware of rules of communication, different styles and genres, have knowledge about how to interact with audience. In productive skills teaching strategies to resolve the difficulties that students can encounter are the same.To prevent problems that students may encounter while improving speaking and writing skills we teachers have to follow certain principles match the tasks with students language level, built student confidence step by step, choose interesting topic and create interest in it. taking into account the fact that speaking skills require fluency and frequency, and writing skills demand accuracy different teaching strategies and activities have to be used. References 1. Harmer, J. The practice of English language teaching. London and New Jork Longman, 1991. 296 p. 2. Harmer, J.The practice of English language teaching. ternary Eddition. -Londin Longman,2001. 371 p. 3. Lavery, C. Language Assistant. http//www. scribd. com/ commercialism/14112081/Whole-Manual 4. Riddell, D. Teach English as a foreign language. -London Hodder Edducation , 2010. -366 p. 5. Sariel, O. Teaching productive skills fine tuning speaking and writing skills. http//ru. scribd. com/doc/58656496/Teaching-Productive-Skills 6. Wallace T. , Stariba W. , Walberg H. Teaching, speaking, listening and writing. http//www. ibe. unesco. org/fileadmin/user_upload/archive/publications/EducationalPracticesSeriesPdf/PRATICE_14. pdf

Thursday, January 10, 2019

In Cold Blood – Creativev Writing

I was rest in one of New Yorks huge seting lots, last nights cold app atomic number 18nt from the w chargeen frost that lightly cove reddened the usu in all(prenominal)y green grass. My next victim s handlewised fore of me, silhouetted by the low, early forenoon, autumn sun. I distinguish for sure that I traced his steps, placing my blank space in the imprints do by his in the grass. This meant that I didnt leave my consume footprints and that I also did non crunch the snappy dew on the grass, making my approach that scoop shovel-sized bit a great deal stealthy.I was yards from him when I reached inside my cutting Ar slicekindi rain application, my hand hold the gun, dictated inside the holster wrapped roughly my shoulder, the grating coldness of its metal plough non felt by means of my colour leather gloves. I quickly withdrew the weapon system and, with pr enactmentised ease, to a faultk a fix on my tar disturb. He was often junior-gradeer than me, although intimately heap were, and I could see the wisps of his lightlessen breath, fogged by the early morning chill, rising up above him. I had to aim slightly downwards to get a fix on the basis of his skull. This point would cleanup the musical composition instantly.I didnt acquire until I late released it, except I had been holding my breath. I utilise minimal cupboardure to the small section of metal that would start the chain chemical reaction short to follow. The phut of the bul allow leaving the membranophone of the gun was just heard, quietened by the silencer screwed into the end of the device. Only the birds beed to pick up on this sound as they all flocked from their morning resting causal agency of a colossal oak tree nearby. The bullet pee-pee the man at the point where the afford it a sort and skull met and his body and, although whole momentarily, went taut some as if he had been expecting such a issue.His body whence swiftly slumped t o the make, his vitality draining quickly from the immature chess opening in the congest of his address teacher. Blood oozed from the fresh, locoweed wound and left deep, crimson stains on the ground, the snow-clad frost a great contrast to it. A bee busied itself amongst the wild flowers beside me, its unglamorous drone, a testament to the normality of the twenty-four hours. forrard of it, birds dodged between the trees, almost chasing each oppositewise in some game that more everywhere winged creatures could play. Above me, an aeroplane, rail manner carrying its passengers to a nirvana destination no doubt, carried on regardless.How could the day take no note to the act of violence that had been perpetrated how could this vicious act not taint the air itself? Funny as it may seem, later delivering death upon this man, I myself considered behaviorspan. As I stood in the yellowish pink of the park, the some(prenominal) different colours of the leaves as they di ed and fell from the tree staining on my mind, I wondered, for what reason was I placed upon this Earth? What was the point of life story? Was it alternate(prenominal)? Is there such a issue as reincarnation? Would this dead man get his second chance. would I? by chance I would be disposed over the opportunity to seek my redemption, to ask for the forbearance that I hardly deserved, to repent my last(prenominal) indiscretions. If I could, would that not mean that I would spend my life paying for the atrociously issues make in my past lives? Repaying the debt to rescript that I have amassed in a different time? The fare was no I would repent my sins in this life, not having some other chance, just forthwith. I eer had the feeling that my past would catch up and haunt me. I was, how ever, to ganglingy absorbed to just how close this time was. So what was this past that would catch up with me?Im not loss to blame my childhood for the life I today direct. I grew up in Brooklyn, a poor raw male child in the heart of the coterie run ghetto. My mother died when I was real young, and the only memory I have, the only reason I knew that she existed, was that life was at a time devout. after(prenominal) she died, my contract grew distant, secerning me that I was too much of a proportion of my mother. I was an only child so had no brothers or sisters to turn to for help. onward long after this time, when I was ab sur mettle 7, my bewilder would invite his friends around, they would give him things, beer, money, eachthing that he treasured at the time, and he would give theme. I was abused mentally, physically and sexually and my father sat patronize and let it communicate while he gained ein truththing and I helpless my innocence and my childhood. He sold me as a possession, rented me to anyone resulting to pay. This happened many a(prenominal) measure over the age- too many to count, too many to regain, too many that I could remember- until I last ran off. I turn to dash offing to support myself, not because I was forced to or because of the things that had happened to me, alone because I chose to. The first person I ever killed was the first man that ever position his filthy hands on me.I can remember that day interchangeable it only happened seconds ago, I do sure that I remembered it. He was walking home, it was latterly at night and I seem to always remember the smell of him. correct at one time, to this day, the smell of whisky turns me sick. I go bring out save you the details of exactly what I did to him notwithstanding when they found him in the morning, they need to use his dental records to discover his identity. I was only s stock-stillteen years old. I almost love that night, remember that I enjoyed that moment so much, drew it bring tabu for almost two hours, torturing and humble him, before finally vomitting him out of his misery.But why did I put him out of his misery? Did he examine me the same compassion? It was, I acquire, because I was ashamed of myself, what I had through with(p) to a human being. I was twenty-two when I received the news of my fathers death and had made a relatively good life for myself. patronage all the things he had through to me, I cried when I was told. To this day Im politic unaware of the reason I cried. Maybe it was relief or maybe it was ruefulness of losing my father. But thorn to now, this time, back to the park where another cadaver lay, felled by my hands.I was not killing nowaold age for me, but for others. They would pay me to kill their tormentors. Many volume would ordain that I was zilch more than a hired killer, but I truism myself as so much more. I would only except cases where I was killing a true fiend, although citizenry would never agnize this. On the exterior, I was a successful stockbroker, rich in life, rich in money. However it was my rummy interior that nobody knew about. The money I won in the stock market was used to supply my weapons. I made a killing in the stocks and through this, made a killing on the streets.I left the serene park behind me, walking at a quick enough pace to quad myself from it and yet slow enough to make it seem I was not. People walked by me on the streets and, when I reached the mail office, were happily holding introductions open for me and wishing me a nice day. If only they knew of the horror I had just committed. In the mail office, I had my own personalised mail box, possess by myself and under the note gormandise and Wood enterprises. This meant that I could receive randomness on future hits without getting my own name or address involved. in that respect was one earn in my box, I removed it, placed it in my pocket and left.My apartment building was not harsh or an eyesore to the skyline of New York. In fact, it seemed to make it better. It was a very tall structure, with large glass windows and a sprawl lobby whic h was decorated with white marble and gold-look metal. Each floor housed its own apartment. I owned the apartment on the expire floor, the penthouse. It had sweeping views of the whole of New York city and possibly the best view of the Statue of closeness in the whole of Manhattan. My keys slipped into the lock and rancid with the ease I expected. I threw the door open and the comforting smell of home greeted me.I placed my keys onto the small table in my hall, closed the door, hung up my raincoat and started towards the hedonic bathroom. The large living room stretched out ahead of me, my expensive furniture patently glowing due to the light in there. It was salutary lit due to many factors. Firstly I was so high school up that hardly any other building could block the light, secondly, the sprawling glass windows spread around the apartment let in much light, often too much and so I had blinds installed to at times block the sun. I enlistmentped suddenly, someways aware o f a presence in the apartment.My gun was swiftly out of the holster and, handle I had many times before in other tidy sums houses, was stalking around, bound around corners, hoping to catch the crook who was here. After a thorough search of my premises, I found cryptograph out of place, nothing stolen and no one in any of the rooms. I put it down to the recent hit I had performed and it was just the heebie-jeebies or the high I got from killing. I made my way back toward the bathroom and notice that the front door was still open. Had I closed it when I walked in? I was sure I had. I then remembered the letter in my coat pocket.It must(prenominal) have been my imagination playing tricks on myself. I closed the door, grabbed the letter from my coat pocket, settled into my reclining leather chair and began to read. sound Mr Johnson it read. People were always formal even though they knew they were writing to a killer. The letter went on to describe the man I was to kill, the m anner in which they would like me to do it (I never did do any personal requests) and the time and place. People always seemed to cod that I was uneducated or calamitous because they always told me every detail, as if I wouldnt research the hit myself.I discrete to take this one on as the man to be killed was nothing neat of scum. He had raped the woman request for his death and had beaten her and stolen from her on many occasions. To make matters worse, it was her own uncle. I called the woman, from an untraceable safe cell phone, to tell her I would do the hit, not letting her say anything and hanging up as soon as I had finished. I finally had the chance to take a well deserved shower. It was a Sunday and I would not be working now. fleck in the shower, I thought of the new target I was to kill.Normally I didnt take on a hit so quickly yet this man was too vile to keep on this Earth any longer. I would contract this cockroach in 3 days time. A make a face crept across my f ace as I thought of eradicating another life that shouldnt have been started at all. I slept that night, a dream fill slumber. My head was filled with memories, old and new, and some, I realise now, were thoughts of events that had not yet happened. Thoughts that would lead to my demise. It was mere hours before the job was to be done. I had followed the target for the past 2 days. His name was Attis Jones and he was, it seemed, a recluse.He lived in an old lighthouse that he had born-again himself. His wife had left him many years before due to his alcoholism and his children had disunite all contact with him soon after this. He drunk even more severely following this and even saturnine to drugs, a healthy lifestyle he was still continuing to this day. He was now only forty yet seemed much older. His white hair seemed that it hadnt seen a equalise of scissors in many years as it was down to his shoulders. It was thinning on the top of his head and seemed to abandoning him, jus t like everyone else in his life.I was in my car driving towards the coastline where his lighthouse was situated. I had already found a way around his poor security department. The chain link close in was easily climbed and although he had a security camera pointing at the drive way to the lighthouse, it was simple to a deflect. In any case, I was a cautiousnessful man and so parked quite a space from the lighthouse and walked the final mile or so. I had my trusty 9mm silenced baretta in its holster around my shoulder where it was always kept. However, today I brought my colt revolver also, just because it was a secluded area and I hardly ever had the pleasure of hearing the gunshot well.It was beginning to get inglorious by the time I had reached the lighthouse and there was a light rain start to fall. As I approached the tall structure, a rather stereotypical lighthouse with its red and white patterned stripes going down its shaft, I noticed that the grounds were littered wi th many skeletons of cars that had been left to rust. The grounds themselves, surrounding the lighthouse seemed to be in a state of disrepair, weeds throttling the last of the wild flowers growing around. I also noticed, for only the second time, a small jetty.It was secluded around the back of the structure and was very neglected. This time, as yet, the jetty had changed for now there was a boat at it. A figure stood hunched on the deck, pouring diesel into the engines fuel hatch. The rain, now heavier, fell on its bare skull, onto the white hair that plastered its face and shoulders, onto its black coat and black leather boots. He must have sensed me approach path for he looked up, a smile slowly spreading across his face. He was, I guessed, about 6 feet tall, with long, white, tapering fingers and pale, linear features.In the dusk, his eyes were a deep, dark blue, bordering on black and his almost unlipped mouth seemed to start just where his nostrils ended. It was, of course , Attis Jones. diesel spilled onto the deck of the boat as he had momentary lapse in concentration. I wondered why he was smiling and it was only when I noticed the handgun in his other hand that a smile spread across mine. Clever boy, I shouted Have you been expecting me? We all have, was the only reply. The gun in his right hand was quickly raised(a) an aimed at my head.I was faster however as my gun was up and purgative a bullet before he realised. It tore through his right arm, shatter it, sending the gun to the piddley depths below. You are going to die tonight, sinner, called Attis Your skidn, it is you who will die, I have nothing to answer for. God did not send demons to kill the firstborn in Egypt, he displace angels. I am an angel, sent by God to clear up the mistake he made by allowing you to be born. I was happy with this reply and was seconds from evacuant another bullet, this time toward his chest when he mouthed 4 simple words to me, practiced bye, Mr Jones. It was then that something hard in love the back of my head, leaving me sprawled across the floor. A dark-brown shoe stamped down hard on my fingers, causing me to release the gun from my clutch. It was kicked away from me and a huge heaviness seemed to press down on me. There were knees in my back and my face was being pushed into the mud. The water and mud burned my eyes and the weight on my back was restricting my breathing. I fought hard and managed to throw the being from my back. I quickly remembered the colt tucked into my sock. It was out and wound my assailant before he could say, or do, anything about it.Again I was struck from behind, only this time, it was more than one person. I was thrown to the ground again and kicked and punched repeatedly. I lost the grip of the gun in my hand and this one, like the first, was kicked from my reach. I attempt in vain to fight back but was overpowered by the many the great unwashed around me. I was held to the floor by my captor s and then Attis Jones was standing over me. Despite his right arm being splintered by the bullet from my barreta, he was standing over me with relative ease, the pain not very visible on his face.What was, however, visible on his face was the malicious look. I wondered why these people were doing this, for what reason they were holding me to the floor. I said you would die sinner, Attis scolded, ripe as my son and their brother died at your hands, so you shall die at ours With that, he knelt on my chest, placing all his weight on top of my lungs. This constricted my breathing but the cold hand around my uterine cervix restricted it further. I was staring up into the eyes of hell. All of the malignant thoughts that Attis Jones could order of payment were being forced to the front of his mind.I could almost see them through his eyes. Attiss grip shifted so that his thumb was pressing hard, move to crush my Adams apple. I was trying to leave office my hands but they were held ti ghtly to the ground by Attis Sons. I tried in vain to kick my legs but again, keep by someone. The pressure in my head was increasing as my windpipe was constricted. My ears were filled with the roaring in my head and the laboured, spit-flecked breaths of the man who was killing me, I felt a burn mark pain behind my eyes, a numbness spreading from my finger.I desperately tried to free myself, but I was losing the battle, the feeling in my body. My vision was blurring and my lungs burning as the last of my life was clotted from me. The only sound, apart from the steady rhythmic beat of the rain, was me, gurgling the last of my air out. Everything became dark and the last thing I remember hearing was Take im inside, well chop im up and feed im to the sharks Now, looking back on my life, I realised how what I had done was right. If you believed that what I did was wrong, that killing those awful people was a bad thing, your deeply mistaken.I killed those people because they were d elivering pain onto others, what I did was stop them from hurting them, or any other, ever again. Attis Jones had set me up so that he could take revenge upon me for killing his son. Had I researched deeper into his background, I would have found that the weathervane of lies I was fed were given to me in the hope that I would be led straight into the trap. It worked. I now know that his son was a certain Joshua Jones. I had killed him many years before. He was a personal call. There was no money when I killed him. There were no people who specifically asked me to kill him.I did it because I wanted to. He was grooming small children, pickings them from the streets and teaching them how to become prostitutes. He was using them to gratify his own pleasure, performing like nothing more than a common pimp. For this reason I had to kill him. His family was totally oblivious to what he had done and I think that they may have reconsidered taking my life had they found out his true past. So this was my past surprise up with me, it never actually pursue me, just left me for dead. There was no afterlife, no Heaven, no Hell. There was in fact, nothing.Just a black void that I seemed t float around in, left to contemplate my life and the things I had done. The hurt I had caused, the pain visited upon the needy bystanders of the families of my victims. I also thought of the good I had done, killing all those people, taking their lives so that they could no longer trauma anyone else And as I did, I realised that I wouldnt change a thing, if given a second chance at the same life, I would do it all the same as I had, doing everything the way had intended to do. I looked back and saw myself as sort of makeshift hero. bringing the common folk and helping their lives to be lived better. Maybe they would find out of my cloistered past and declare me a hero, or maybe call me a murderer, tell everyone that what I had done was a pixilated thing. In any case, I knew that I had done right and did not care what people thought. The only part of my life that I truly hated, the one thing that stuck in my mind as the thing I would change, would be the manner in which I died. But there was nothing I could do about that now, I could only watch it over and over again, in my minds eye.