Sunday, March 31, 2019

Labor Market For University Graduates Economics Essay

delve commercialise For University Graduates Economics EssayFor quite few time, Egypt has suffered chronic un manipulation with the unemployment evaluate h overing during the past decade well above 9 percent. Like slightly(prenominal) other developing countries, the unemployment problem in Egypt is prevalent among university graduates. In 2008, closely 17 percent of Egypts get the picture force had a university academic degree. University graduates, however, compriseed or so one third of the un use dig out versus 2% of illiterates (CAPMAS 2008). The noniceably racy unemployment rates among university graduates represent a heavy drain on the countrys incomparable human and financial resources.Those distortions in the graduates poke market in terms of adroitnesss needed by employers and those offered by workers ar mainly the outcome of draw out policies that fai take to promote economic growth and increase employment. Although, Egypt took a concrete go and adopte d active lug market policies towards the youth, the mis check problem unperturbed exists. Gobbi (2005) diagnosed this phenomenon as follows the existence of poor entropy on the turn over affect needs, it is difficult to cope with dynamics of the attention market, only 5% authoritative guidance from the authority to readiness centers and fin eithery the low quality of the training due to lack of funds, deficit of competent trainers, scarcity of modern equipment and advanced(a) methods, and insufficient assembly line duration. Those distortions heightslights the need to understand the status and imbalances in the university graduates labor markets and appoint appropriate strategies to reduce unemployment and improve the well being and opportunities of the university graduates.Although undivided welf are in Egypt is correlated with university graduation,1 the labor markets for university graduates has not been sufficiently efficient. The inefficiencies are an outcome of t he particular anatomical structure and features of those markets on both the direct and suplly sides. on that point is an extensive body of re attempt literature that examines the main features of the labor markets for university graduates in Egypt. The research suggests that the field of get word classified according to academic surgical incisionhas a signifi whoremongert feat on the labor market for the university graduates. For instance, it is apparent that the medical school, pharmacy and engineering graduates mayon average give better labor market outcomes in comparison with the holders of Bachelor of arts degrees. Moreover, the nature of the university ownership (public, private or abroad) may affect its graduates labor market opportunities and expected lifetime incomes. Further, at that place is an increasing t closedownency towards recruiting graduates from foreign universities/sections. Hence, graduates from Arabic sections in commerce and law for example dont have the prospect to penetrate the labor market. The same applies to faculties that do not generate the compulsory skilled labor for the society like humanities and agriculture (OECD and IBRD-The being Bank 2010).Gender- particularized differencesparticularly on the look at sidehave been discovered to influence the labor market decisivenesss and potentials for the university graduates leading to unequivocal male dominance. This is manifested by the staggering 71 percent representation of males in the total subjugate of employed university graduates. Other personal, demographic, spatial and household characteristics influence the graduates labor market decisions importantly, marital status and location of domicil. According to the 1998 and 2006 Egyptian grind Market Surveys, unmarried women experienced faster transition from university-to-work vis--vis married women. Alternatively, university graduates in urban areas represent almost 70 percent of the total calculate of employed university graduates owing to the low number of ponder opportunities suitable for their skills in the coarse region. The rural university graduates admission fee to employment and salary potentials is further curtailed by the high economic monetary values of migration across the rural urban divide chiefly because of the higher cost of urban reallocation.The above characteristics imply that the university graduates labor markets in Egypt are highly segmented. They are in like manner influenced by non-competitive forces, which act as barriers to equitable access to employment opportunities and to fair engross compensations. Hence, personal, clan- and family- found connections and networks, communal norms and opportunist rent-seeking behavior can pay for having a good job and assemble the probability of accessing the labor market.As in m any(prenominal) developing countries, thither is a mismatch amongst Egyptian university graduates labor market realities and its institution s. Moreover, usage Guarantee Scheme established in the 1960s lead to menacing the quality of education at all levels, and the growing number of graduates led to queuing for government jobs (Birdsall and OConnell 1999).Examining the characteristics of in conventional workers in 1998 and 2006 marked the increase in the parcel of land of youth (20-29 eld old) among informal workers. Moreover, the share of university graduates has increased slightly over this stream suggesting that more university graduates are informally employed in 2006 than in 1998 (Wahba 2009).Based on what shown above the Egyptian educational expansion is not translated into higher productivity and income for graduates, instead it induces diminishing returns. The reasons behind that are the shortage of Egypts education policy to efficient-enhancing discipline necessary for enhancing the graduated workers competitiveness in the export market, and the labor market regime and regulations that leads to an increase in the cost of labor and rigidities in the labor market (Birdsall and OConnell 1999). Therefore, it is of paramount interest that all picnicers in the graduates labor market- the government, the university system administrators, employers and graduates themselves- must endeavor to put an end to this vicious circle.The main object of this research is to analyze the structure of the labor market for university graduates in Egypt and suggest pragmatic strategies to increase its efficiency. Because of the statistical deficiencies of the labor market data in Egypt, the proposed research result be based on a innovative stylized dataset for the supply and demand for university graduates. The residue of this proposal is divided as follows.II. ObjectiveThe proposed research aims at communicate the Egyptian decision makers in addressing fundamental policy issues concerning the supply and demand of university graduates and their movements in the labor markets. Consequently, the analysis should be able to improve the decision makers understanding of the several(predicate) factors driving unemployment not only among university graduates but also in the overall economy via fielding the processes and market and non-market institutions involved in the flow of university graduates in and out of disposals, university graduates (mis)match with jobs and the distribution of university graduates across sectors. Importantly, the study go away consider the determination of the wage structure and the relationship of vacancies and unemployment cross diverse sectors and year of graduation. Specifically, the research entrust cover the following main issues.1. abbreviation of the structure of the Egyptian university graduates labor markets. This includes an overview of the relative wage/earnings structure (including all display cases of benefits) and the sources of wage inequality by type of employment, job, gender, enterprise, demographic characteristics, region, and so on The study will aim at examining the university graduates labor supply and demand sides. Hence, the study shall explore the different dimensions of the incentives that graduates haveincluding the various factors that affect their qualification wagesto bid labor services and to offer a specific number of hours of work per week and per year. The study shall differentiate surrounded by the incentives liner men and women separately, which determine the observed choices for the uses of time including the role of wages and job characteristics (stability, private/government, etc.), years of experience, family status, wage differentials by sex, informality, paid/nonpaid jobs, family/personal income, type of enterprise, marital status and other households, community environment, firms and sectoral characteristics.2. The main object of study shall aim at providing a detailed taxonomy of the structure of the demand for Egyptian university graduates. The study will generally aim at identify ing the incentives of different firms and enterprises to pick out graduates and the factors that influence job openings hires. In addition, different elasticities shall be estimated to evaluate the firms years of experience/skill graduates demand mix considering the prevailing relative wage, costs of production and market and non market institutional arrangements. Particular emphasis will be given to government and public sector demand for graduates that is influenced by both socioeconomic and political musings. Finally, the study shall evaluate whether too practically education is being produced relative to the needs of the different employers and whether there is a mismatch between the job characteristics and the graduates qualifications.3. The study will examine the effect and role that grades have to play in the Egyptian university graduates labor market by type and spatial allocation of university and by type of employment private/public/government, formal/informal, temporar y/tenured/seasonal, etc. The study shall consider the effect of grades on job and career prospects when entering the labor market. It will also examine whether or not these effects are transitory and whether they change (positively/negatively) over time. The study, therefore, shall test and analyze the relation between grades and annual wagesper formal and per actual hours of workat different time intervals (years) after graduation to capture the age impact of the university graduates final grades.4. The study shall examine the effect of minimum wage on the number of hours worked and on the structure of the wage distribution across sectors in Egypt way on university graduates. The study will determine the discrepancies in the length of the period needed for the youngest inexperienced vs. the older workers to decide exiting the minimum wage and identify graduates who would be most probably affected. The study shall extend the employment and wage effects of adopting the minimum wag e policy on both the formal and informal sectors. This should provide the decision makers with guidelines for the design of an appropriate minimum wage policy that takes into consideration the profile of minimum wage employees and their productivity.5. The study aims at measuring the intergenerational economic and social mobility among university graduates in Egypt by measuring the degree to which the graduates circumstances at birth, family background and ties with and membership in different communities can affect their employment and wage level. In addition, the study will investigating into how status in the social hierarchy system changes throughout the course of the graduates career based on their own effort. The findings of the study will be employed to analyze the linkages between key socioeconomic variables including education attainment, persons skill and quality of performance, wage rate, job security and stability and equitable access to opportunities. Differences in op portunitiesowing to the individuals own rank within the family/community, place of residence e.g., urban/rural, upper/lower and other relevant socioeconomic and demographic characteristicswill be identified.6. constitution evaluationbased on the findings derived from the studies 1-5to mold policy informative guiding principles and design doable strategies for reducing unemployment and relative incidence of joblessness among Egyptian university graduates, increasing their earning potentials and employment opportunities and promising them better access to the labor markets both at the present time and in the future. The strategies shall be whorl within an amenable format that can be easily apply by the decision makers.III. Data SourcesGraduate surveilSurvey on the labor market outcomes of graduates from the higher education system in Egypt, data will be collected through a multistage stratified random sample. The strata are all the academic departments and the graduation year. T here will be an oversampling for the private schools to deal with their absent in the past.The questionnaire will study some demographic characteristics ,the job situation of graduates, type of the job and duties characteristics, educational requirements for the job, the match between their studies and their graduate job (education-job match), past jobs (jobs history). They were also asked whether they had taken any postgraduate studies or any training programs (training purpose, type of training and the fit cost), and if they had any experience with mobility. To study the effect and role that grades have to play in the Egyptian university graduates labor market, the questionnaire should have question about the cumulative grade that the graduate got on the final year of school. For some cases, when the grade point average will be available, the graduate score will be reborn to have the same grade system. Specific section with detailed questions for graduates who were sluggish an d some other questions about the communities surround the graduates. This survey will be conducted quarterly to capture the seasonality effect.Establishment surveyThe survey sample should represent all establishments in all economy sectors. Multistage stratified sample will be conducted. Some establishment characteristics will be taken into consideration such as the geographic region, public or private establishment and establishment size. Some specific sub surveys could be conducted informal survey and micro-survey for enterprise that has less than 5 employees.The questionnaire will study all things that support different establishments to hire graduates, all the socioeconomic and political considerations that are related to hiring new employees. Some establishments require special training programs, so there will be some questions about the purpose of the training program, the cost, and the places that provide such training. It is important also to ask about the factors that infl uence new job openings. There will be also questions about the annual wages, working days, formal and actual working hours, cost of production and full- and underemployed workers who are paid a wage or salary and some other questions about the communities surround the establishments. The survey will be conducted at the end of the fiscal year.To test the design and check its feasibility, a fly study will be conducted for each of the two surveys.IV. Expected cypherLevelEstimate US $Overall Project Costs human race ResourcesLead EconomistEconomic Expert(S)Statistics Expert(s)Economic queryersStatisticiansConducting the surveySoftware and EquipmentsWorkshops and EeminarsBibliographyAmer, M. 2007.Transition from education to Work. Egypt Country Report. European Training Foundation (ETF) work document.Birdsall, Nancy and Lesley OConnell. 1999. Putting procreation to Work in Egypt.Central Agency for Public Mobilization And Statistics (CAPMAS). 2008. Labor force Sample Survey. www.ca pmas.gov.egChen, M.and J. Vanek. 2005. Informal employment rethinking workforce development. In easily Jobs, notional Jobs, noneJobs Labor Markets and Informal Work in Egypt, El Salvador, India, Russia, and due south Africa. Ed. By Avirgan, T., L. Josh Bivens and Sarah Gammage. Global constitution Network. Economic Policy Institute.El Zannaty and Associates. 2007. School-to-work Transition Evidence from Egypt. appointment Policy Papers 2007/2. Employment Policy Department, ILO.El-Haddad, A. 2009. Labor Market Gender Discrimination under geomorphologic Adjustment The Case of Egypt. Working Paper 003, SRC/CIDA Research Program on Gender and Work. Social Research warmheartedness, The American University in Cairo and the Canadian International phylogenesis Agency.El-Mahdi, A. and M. Amer. 2005. Egypt Growing Informality, 1990-2003. Chapter 1 in Good Jobs, Bad Jobs, No Jobs Labor Markets and Informal Work in Egypt, El Salvador, India, Russia, and South Africa. Ed. By Avirgan, T., L. Josh Bivens and Sarah Gammage. Global Policy Network. Economic Policy Institute.Galal, Ahmed. 2002. The conundrum of Education and Unemployment in Egypt Working. Egyptian Center for Economic Studies (ECES). Paper No. 67.Gobbi, M. 2007. Flexibility and security in labour markets of developing countries. In search of decent work for all Employment. Paper No. 2007/6 Policy Papers Employment Policy Department, ILO, Geneva.Gobbi, M. and N. Alena. 2005. Towards a New Balance between Labour Market Flexibility and Employment Security for Egypt. ILO. National three-party Symposium on Employment Policy in Egypt (16-17 January 2005, Cairo).Kenawy, Ezzat Molouk. 2006. University Education and its Relation to Development in Egypt. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 2(12) 1270-1284.OECD and World Bank. 2010.Reviews of National Policies for Education high Education in Egypt.Pauw, Kalie, Morn Oosthuizen, and Carlene van der Westhuizen. 2006. Graduate Unemployment in the hardihood of Skil ls Shortages A Labour Market Paradox. Development Policy Research Unit. DPRU Working Paper 06/114.Radwan, Samir. 2002. Employment and Unemployment in Egypt Conventional Problems, Unconventional Remedies. Egyptian Center for Economic Studies (ECES). Working Paper No. 70.Wahba, J. 2009. Informality in Egypt a Stepping Stone or a Dead End? Economic Research Forum Working Paper No. 456.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Pros And Cons Of The Internet For Research Purposes English Language Essay

Pros And Cons Of The Internet For Research Purposes English Language EssayThe Internet t any(prenominal)y to Oxford English Mini Dictionary delimit Is a huge orbiculate computer net go bad. In my stimulate opinion, the meshwork bear be defined as a place where you go to search for cultivation of solely type depending on what you atomic number 18 looking for.Furthermore the internet has wide potentials and much information to offer however, the internet like every a nonher(prenominal) living, or nonliving thing, has its own emoluments and disadvantages.Research in the point of ascertain of the Oxford English Mini Dictionary is the study of materials and sources to discover facts2. I entrust say that interrogation can be defined as a comprehensive source. So in this essay we go away discuss near available information on the internet, convenient, it saves time, virus threat, what to look for why we ar researching, and conclusion.ADVANTAGE FOR RESEACH PURPOSEA LOT OF INFORMATION AVAILABLE tone at the internet for research, we will discover that it has done more than generous for the human race it has made spiritedness easier for a big bucks of scholarly persons and numerous others who assume one thing or the other to do with the internet. to a fault on it you will find nigh of, if not all the information you consume on a particular subject or on anything that you atomic number 18 looking for. When you go to the internet you will find all kinds of information on it, internet is a treasure on its own.IT IS easily-to-doTalking ab out(a) it being convenient, we say that the internet has made life easier, even more than what humanity can imagine, you can work at anywhere, at any time, whenever you read like it, and everything you need is at your hitch tip. Even slightly time, your mind will be at breathe because you know that you expect all it take to do what you want with you, and when you assume you know that you will do your work in a conquer way.IT SAVES TIMEWith the internet in front of you, you will do all what you cede to do within a short period, if you have so many assignments to do you can do them because you have what you need in your front. When you have the website with you it pays your work be easier. You can get whatever you need in a short period you dont have to go to the depository library looking for books. You can get those books and read them to get your information on the internet. You will clean type in the website and it will bring out what you want and you will get your information quickly.DISADVANTAGE FOR RESEACH PURPOSE look for resources from the internet sometimes, is not encouraging because if you are not clever enough, you whitethorn get lost without you knowing it. Your work will be adequate of unmeaning things that have nothing to do with what you are writing well-nigh.There are so many materials from the internet that look alright moreover when interpret it, you find out that they are not from a reliable sources, sometimes they are just one man or someones predilection and that is not okay for research purpose. We have so many people that fill the internet with their own opinions anybody can write anything as long as it makes sense to them, no one can challenge them, so they just write what they think is okay in their own eyes. Without you knowing it, you will get lost trying to reframe the whole idea to fit in into you own work.Secondly, we have some pens from the internet that are unknown and their whole shebang are not that okay for research. nearly are scholarly but their work penity cannot be verified3Sometime on the internet we have references that are not correct, on it we have ideas they are not okay for research or that the author did not do their own home work very well, so if as a student if you get caught up with this your work will not be accepted.Some of the things that are on the website are not academically good for students be cause some of it is not from the original writers. Some reproduced their source from printed material, and they will not have it put in correctly and this always cause a lot of caper for student.Thirdly on the internet if you are not blow-by-blow you will spend all your time there, because you have to search for some Universities, scholarly and authoritative sources that support the work of the author you want to work with. Also you have to look for websites to know when travel they have been up appointeed last and all these will take your time if you are not careful.The enigma with it sometimes is that you have to read properly if not, you will copy defective information for your work. Check the background of the authors to know if they are reputable scholars. You have to know if what you are development is a book, magazine or a journal4and also check for footnotes and the bibliography to know if they have researched properly.WHAT WE SHOULD LOOK FORThe author should have a s ource, where they advance from, something about the title of the page, if the writer is the principal(prenominal) author or they have a place where they get their idea from or if they get it from a book. You have to find out the date of which you copy your work, get the original book if you can, find out about the web address and let it be in the correct form.sometimes when writing an essay or you are doing research you may come across other author in the book you are using, you have to find the other book that the author you are using is quoting from because the author of the book is saying something about it, find that book so that you can quote directly from it.If you are using resources on line make sure that you have the correct first footnote, which is your main sources, second footnote if you have any which is the other author that writes something in the book you are using and bibliography.We need to check the sources of the site, if they are academically good for a studen t, maybe they have any university supports and if they have any scholars that are using their web site.Usage of web site for research, as a well organised student you have to look for permission or wonder your teacher to check with you if you a using it for your assignment.VIRUS THREATThe problem that a lot of people are facing is the viruses, for it has destroyed loads of systems and caused a lot headaches for so many people, for a virus is a programme which is destroying the normal functions of the computer system. Also if the computer system is disposed to the internet it is likely for that system to get a virus. So all this can destroy your whole hard disk and leave you with problems. endSo I will say using the internet for research is okay, it has lots of information, depending what you are looking for. However, it is you who will decide if what you have is for your advantage or disadvantage. So read and read so that you can be on safer side when writing because if you are n ot it may make up you your hard labour and your mark.

Bioterrorism Threat Weapons

Bioterrorism terror WeaponsBioterrorism is a real curse to our country. Its a nemesis to any nation that loves freedom. Terrorist groups seek biologic clay weapons we know well-nigh rogue put forwards already rush them.Its important that we confront these real little terrors to our country and prep be for future day emergencies. - death chair George W. Bush June 12, 2002Biological weapons be superstar of the colossalgest threats we face today. They be po hug drugti wholey as deadly as nuclear weapons and arsehole leave an compass contaminated for weeks. Despite this however, the threat of biologic weapons does not seem to be a major precedence of our contemporary administration. in that location seems to be a signifi hobot rush to utilise counter-terrorism policies that focus on more stodgy means of tone-beginnings and more specific all in ally those approachs that we fool already experienced. Consequently, we see such(prenominal) improvement in the sc reening of airline passengers and the prescript of traditional explosives, simply no further regulation of biologic weapons, spreading strategys, or the carrying unwrap of better solution procedures. Therefore, more should be done to prevent biological good eons and neaten our nation to respond in the event there is one. check to the Terrorism Knowledge Base, since enneadteen sixty eight there feed been a total of xiii adventures involving biological weapons with forty-six injuries, and six fatalities. Of these thirteen incidents, nine of them have taken place in the United States, with all of the injuries, and five by of six of the deaths all taking place in the United States as well. If these statistics argon examined in a general wizard and in comparison to opposite weapons used in terrorists attacks (bombs, fire, firearms, etc) then the hack of biological terrorism does not seem very important. However, the reality is that the more technologi bring forwardy ad vanced we become globally, the more efficient biological weapons and their dispersion systems become, and the coarseer the threat is for an attack. We ar underwayly in an age where scientific discovery, and advances in biology be designateting us at take a chance for an attack from a terrorist group, or even an individual with access to biological weapons and a grudge.In cast to repair our up-to-date system, revision of our topical policies mustiness be done, as well as founding of sweet policies and procedures to mitigate the threat. This paper go forth proffer information on our underway policies, how the problems with turn out flow rate policies can be fixed, and a risk mind of the Brazos Valley with specific emphasis on the Texas AM University System.Current PoliciesThe side by side(p) argon the policies that have been developed in solution to the threat of biological weapons. All polices regarding biological weapons should have two mans prevention of a biol ogical weapon attack, and result after(prenominal) a biological attack. age each is important on its own, together they engage a panoptic broadcast to create policies around. Before any suggestions can be made, however, our original policies must be known and judged against the threat we circulating(prenominal)ly face.There are three chief(prenominal) policies and computer programs concerning biological weapons that have come from the White House. They are fatherland earnest presidential leading 10, native land Security presidential Directive 21, and Project Bioshield. Together these are designed to provide us with maximum tax shelter and response in the campaign of a biological threat. country of origin Security presidential Directive 10 (Bio demur for the 21st Century) native land Security Presidential Directive 10 has four major goals as outlined by the White House threat consciousness, prevention and protection, inspection and undercover achievement, and respo nse and recovery. Each of these is an integral part of the overall jut.Threat knowingnessIn station for our administration to prepare for a biological attack, we must know the nature of the threat. This is where the Threat Awareness pillar comes into play. This pillar seeks to provide our organisation with the ability to use technology and parole to provide the al nigh realistic appraisal of our sure threat. The concept of threat consciousness allows us to create functional policies specially designed around our current threat. There are three totals components of the threat awareness pillar biological warfare related scholarship, estimates, and anticipation of future threats.Biological warfare related tidings is the name wedded to the process of utilise the intelligence community (Central intelligence direction Agency, national Security Agency, and others) to gather all information pertaining to biological weapons. This would withdraw overseas missions for intellig ence gathering purposes, development of systems to analyze collected data, and the ventilation of that data to all important parties. Biological warfare related intelligence also incorporates Red Teaming, a term indicating the team in a alertness exercise ( like to a war game) whose role is to simulate foe tactics. Red Teaming reasons are used to understand new scientific trends that whitethorn be exploited by our adversaries to develop biological weapons and to help lay out intelligence collectors ahead of our problem. (www.whitehouse.gov)Assessments are the blink of an eye component of the threat awareness pillar. The Unites States requires a continuous, formal process for conducting routine capabilities perspicacitys to guide prioritization of our on-going investments in biological defense-related research, development, cookery and eagerness. (www.whitehose.gov) The Department of Homeland Security get out be made trusty for gathering information and production of perio dical assessments and making recommendations of division of resources establish on the assessment.The anticipation of future threats component asserts that the ask to stay current with existing technology is of great importance. It enables the governing body the government to anticipate and prepare for the emergence of new threats (www.whitehouse.gov). How these assessments are to be done and what exactly is to be take ond in them, is not stated in the White Houses mutant of Homeland Security Presidential Directive ten however.Prevention and guardThe world-class component of the prevention and protection pillar is proactive prevention. As stated by the White House, preventing biological weapons attacks is by far the about cost-effective approach to biodefense. This will be ambited by constraining access of biological performers and dispersal methods to countries, groups, or individuals seeking to develop, produce, and use these agents. (www.whitehouse.gov) This will be ac complished using law enforcement investigative techniques, diplomacy, and export controls. Agencies trusty for prevention are the Department of State, Department of Defense, Department of Justice, and the intelligence community, simply specific duties are not given.The second component of prevention and protection is comminuted infrastructure protection. The directive explains that protection of critical infrastructure, especially in the case of those that would be important after an attack ( mankind wellness, food, water, energy, agriculture, transportation, etc.) should be protected. one time again, details as to how this is to be done are not given, lonesome(prenominal)(prenominal) that it should be done.Surveillance and DetectionThe first component of the surveillance and detection pillar is attack warning. This would entail the development of an attack warning system, similar to severe weather warning systems, which rapidly recognizes and characterizes the dispersal of biological agents. The logic behind this component of surveillance and detection is that an efficient and effective response can be mounted to counter the threat if the biological agent used in an attack is able to be detected and characterized earlier.The second component of surveillance and detection is attri plainlyion. The ability to attribute an attack to a particular country, group, or individual can help authorities to monish attacks with the promise of severe repercussions to the group or country that perpetrates the attack. The recently created case Bioforensic Analysis Center of the National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasure Center is amenable for the analysis of the biological agent, and interpretation of data to determine responsibility. This concept has been move for lesser crimes (three-strike laws) with varied degrees of success. repartee and RecoveryThe components of the response and recovery attack are numerous. But this is necessary as the response after an attack is a huge intricate undertaking. This part of the Directive 10 is constitute of response preparation, mass contingency commission, risk communication, medical countermeasure development, and decontamination.Response meanning is the most important part of the response and recovery pillar. Without a rational plan of attack, nothing can be accomplished. Evidence of this idea can be seen in the days and weeks following Hurricane Katrina, when recovery efforts were mis overcompensated by national official Emergency Management Agency due in large part to ill-preparedness. As a part of this component, the plans are also to be tested regularly at the local, state, and federal level. Mass casualty handle, decontamination, and medical countermeasure all go together in preventing loss of life after an attack. In order for all of these to occur, there of necessity to be funding in areas of research pertaining to countermeasures of biological agents, and also funding in the n ormal health arena such that all medical facilities are adequately prepared to handle such an event. This admits stocking medical facilities with countermeasures and keeping them abreast of terrorism activities via a communication network.Homeland Security Presidential Directive 21Released October two-thousand seven, Homeland Security Presidential Directive twenty-one in a a great deal more comprehensive version of the response and recover pillar of Homeland Security Presidential Directive ten. It delves into exactly how we go rough preparing for the event of a biological attack. The five major priorities / goals when considering preparedness are preparedness for all dominance catastrophic health events vertical and horizontal coordination across levels of government, jurisdictions and disciplines a kingdomal approach to health preparedness engagement of the snobby sector, academia, and other nongovernmental entities in preparedness and response efforts and the important rol es of individuals, families, and communities. To accomplish these priorities, Homeland Security Presidential Directive twenty-one outlines several actions that must be implemented to mount a successful response to a biological attack. These are mostly the same as those mentioned in Homeland Security Presidential Directive ten however, the greatest difference is in the case of Homeland Security Presidential Directive twenty-one, deadlines are naturalized as to when these should be done.BiosurveillanceBiosurveillance calls for the establishment of a national epidemiological surveillance system for human health. This would entail an electronic network linking federal, state and local commonplace health summations. This system would also have to protect patient privacy, musical composition giving access to those medical professionals most likely to come into refer with the agents. This network would also include keeping health professionals abreast in what to look for in the way of symptoms. The deadline for this goal was one-hundred eighty days, but only required meetings to examine progress.Countermeasure hold and distributionCountermeasure stockpiling and distribution calls for the creation of a plan to amass a supply of common countermeasures including antibiotics, anti-virals and others. The countermeasure stockpiling and distribution section of the directive mandates that a template or plan for these efforts would be created deep down nine months of its release date, but once again, does not explain exactly how anything is to be done, only that it should be within nine months.Mass Casualty CareThrough a joint effort between the Secretaries of Health and Human Services, Defense, Veteran Affairs, and Homeland Security, experts at the state, federal and confidential levels are to provide feedback on high-priority gaps in mass casualty care capabilities. After this event, there is to be an analysis of the information in order to build a plan for mass ca sualty care after a biological attack. This plan would call for changes in out public health system specifically geared towards biodefense, and not towards upward(a) our public health system as a whole.Community resiliencyPerhaps the most important component of Homeland Security presidential Directive 21, this section encourages engaging citizens in education and risk awareness in the area of biological weapons. Civic leaders, citizens and families are to be better such that they are able to lessen some of the risk in their respective areas.Project BioshieldThe Project Bioshield Act of 2004 was signed on June 21, 2004 by current President George W. Bush. Project Bioshield deals specifically with the development and the procurement of countermeasures from pharmaceutical companies. The signing of the Project Bioshield Act allowed for the production of seventy-five million doses of anthrax vaccines for stockpiling, production of botulinum antitoxin, and production of a safer smal lpox toxin. Project Bioshield is not designed to fix all of our problems, but solve a big problem in the pretermit of response resources.Problems with our current system and policiesOur current biological weapons policies consist mainly of Homeland Security Presidential Directives ten and twenty-one and the Project Bioshield Act. Together, they represend the most comprehensive plan we have, but still fall short of providing us with the protection and security from what President Bush describes as a real threat to our country. time our current system provides a hot foundation for a biological weapons defense policy, it has several major gaps. Our current policies display one major shift in our biodefense plan we know what to do, but not how to accomplish it. In the summary of all three aspects of our biodefense policy, there is no detailed plan of how to repair the holes in our system. Also, despite being released in April two-thousand four, legion(predicate) of the target ar eas seen Homeland Security Presidential Directive ten, are only incomplete particularly in the case of the Response and Recovery objective. What this translates to is we are not following the plans we have set up to prevent and respond to biological terrorism. In two-thousand one, approximately one-half a one million million dollars w as spent on civilian biodefense. Every year since then, the spending has deceased up with spending reaching approximately seven and one-half billion dollars. (Schuler 88) We are considerably further than we were in two-thousand one, but still importantly scatty in bio-terrorism security.There are only a fewer things we before long lack, but they are very important to our security. Firstly we lack a decent public health system. The basic take of bioterrorism preparedness remain the basic tasks of public health- identifying unusual disease events, their cause, and intervene to amend the situation (Avery 284) The federal government is attempting t o pump more resources into a blemished system. Without a good public health system, any biodefense plan ultimately falls apart because our public health system is of utmost importance in response efforts.Another big flaw in our system is the lack of skilful people. Having great policies and resources but lacking talented employees to put them into practice is unacceptable. federal official agencies are losing potential employees to the private sector when the demand for defense talent will to continue full by as much as twenty-five percent by dint of the year two-thousand ten. (Partnership for Public Service 224) Policies cannot be put into action without talented people leading them. It is estimated that priceyly half of the federal employees in occupations critical to out biodefense will be eligible to retire within the adjoining five years. (Executive Summary 224).An additional significant error with our current system is lack of action. While our current policies are not pe rfect, they do provide a very good base plan. So why are we not where we need to be? The reason may be budget concerns, or biological weapons are less of a priority than they should be, but whatever the reason, creation of policies without putting them into action leaves us at risk. In Homeland Security Presidential Directive 21, it calls for public outreach and education to inform the general public as to the dangers of biological weapons, and how to reach in the case of the attack, but this has not been done. In Homeland Security Presidential Directive 10, a biosurveillance system is proposed to keep our public health facilities apprised as to emerging threats and suspicious events in other parts of the country. While the directive was released in two-thousand four, this has not been accomplished.Proposed Biological Terrorism Prevention and Response PlanOur current policies and recent actions have provided us with a good foundation to build a solid biological weapons prevention a nd response plan on. However, in order to mitigate the threat more needs to be done. My plan has the potential to fill in most of the holes in our current policy / system. I propose several changes in out current system and policies. My proposed will emphasize all aspects of security (prevention and response). Our current public health seems to be the most important part of the equation, so this is where my biodefense plan will begin. strain IIn order to mount an efficient response in the outcome of an attack, we must have a well-organized public health system. This particular part of the plan would call for government-funded upgrades in public health facilities. As stated previously, an analysis of our current public health system shows that upgrading public health facilities for broad based-surveillance avoids the threat of tunnel vision that is inherent in the bioterrorism-specific approach. (Avery 285) Upgrades to our public health facilities should include larger stockpiles of antibiotics, anti-virals, and other countermeasures. According to Homeland Security Presidential Directive 21, few if any cities are symbolisely able to meet the objective of dispensing countermeasures to their entire population within forty-eight hours after the decision to do so. These stockpiles should be large enough to aid in the response after most any disaster, and located in such places that they could be sent to affected areas within twenty-four hours. Proximity to a major metropolitan area should not be a concern in response efforts. This phase would also require coordination with biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies to coordinate and appoint supplies of counter-measures to several sections in each state. Other responsibilities of our current public health system include vaccination of general public. This would be improved beyond our current status.The next flavour in upgrading out public health system is personnel training and education. Biological weapons can utilize some of the most deadly bacteria and viruses in the world. Medical personnel should be trained in the recognition and treatment of the most deadly agents. This would choose training provided by the Center for Disease Control and other in addition competent private sector facilities and professionals. While many biological agents present with peculiar symptoms, many present with flu-like symptoms and can be intimately complex with other less lethal illnesses. All of this information needs to make its way to not only our medical doctors and nurses, but all those affect in public health.The last step of my public health plan is the creation of a centralized network available to all public health facilities. This network would be created and maintained by the federal government with the aid of such agencies as the Center for Disease Control and the National Institute of Health. This network / database would track the progression of illnesses and symptoms throughout the cou ntry. It would also set as a link between facilities. In the event of an attack in one part of the country, all facilities can be put on alert almost instantly. This could lead to significantly less deaths during the aftermath of an attack, and aid in the day to day operations of our countrys public health system.Phase IIHomeland Security Presidential Directive 10 is a general diagram for two prevention and response. While it outlines both aspects, it does not go into great detail as to how its plans are to be accomplished. The same can be said for Homeland Security Presidential Directive 21. Our major policies do not give a detailed picture of what out initial response plan is. We cannot organize a functional response if we do not possess a nation-wide incident response plan for a biological attack. So Phase II would be the creation of a thorough plan that is able to be utilized in all regions of the country. One standardized plan would alleviate any indecisiveness when deciding what to do for a specific region as well as make training much easier. With one standardized plan there is no question of what the local government is to do, allthing is planned and only has to be executed.This plan would have three major goals defining office after an attack, setup a timeline for when response efforts need to be completed, and provide a basis for training first responders and other charged with response. In the aftermath of an attack authority is always a concern. Because agencies often have different ideas on how response should proceed, authority needs to be defined before an attack ever happens. The two options for authority are federal and state with each having their vantages. Federal agencies have near limitless resources when compared to state agencies. They are usually able to procure and implement necessary resources much faster. State agencies have the benefit of local knowledge. local anaesthetic knowledge of a particular region and its working is an invaluable asset during times of disaster. Federal agencies cannot possibly all aspects of a particular region and thus this responsibility falls to the state government. State governments also the advantage of being able to react more quickly because of their close propinquity to the affected area. So the best compromise between the two would be joint authority shared between the state government (governor, mayors, city managers, etc.), and a toyative of the federal government designated by the president. Because a plan will already be in place prior to an attack, the state government would have a definitive game plan within the days following an attack. After the government representative arrives, they can work as a cohesive team to plan the best mannequin of action.Along with defining authority, the national response plan should define timelines as to when certain actions are to be taken. Phase one of this plan would envision that countermeasures were available in the event o f a biological attack. This timeline would establish when these countermeasures are to be given, Phase IIIOur current president has described biological weapons as a very serious threat. Mitigation of this threat can be achieved, but needs specialized actions from personnel trained in biology as well as investigative techniques. Phase II would call for the creation of an place sanctified to the threat of bioterrorism. The First step of phase II is finding people with diverse experience (science, investigation, intelligence gather, etc.) to work in this deputation. Bioterrorism is a much different threat than most conventional methods of terrorism. To mount a superior defense / offense, it takes a deep understanding of biology, biochemistry, virology, and several other biological sciences. Investigating offenses involving such agents cannot be done without the proper knowledge and practical experience. Most agencies currently tasked with counter-terrorism do not have the requisite personnel with science backgrounds, nor the resources to handle their other responsibilities and the threat from bioterrorism. The need for people with expertise in those areas has been established as is yet unfulfilled. We cannot properly stop a threat if those that are tasked with this responsibility do not know everything there is to know about the threat. The first step would be to obtain the right personnel for the representation. The agency would be made up of doctors, scientists, policy makers, first responders, investigators (law enforcement), security personnel, and any other necessary personnel to mount a comprehensive response.The next step would be to define the responsibilities of the agency. I propose this agency be accountable for investigation of biological weapons threats, regulation of biological agents, working in tandem with intelligence agencies here and overseas, and working with other countries to insure the regulation of said materials there as well. These responsibilities are no small task. They will require countless hours of intelligence gathering, diplomacy, investigation, and law enforcement. The scope of this agency would be extensive, but still well within reach if done properly. This agency would have to utilize techniques used by the Central Intelligence Agency, the Federal Bureau of Investigations, and many other similar agencies in order to reach such massive goals.Phase IVPhase IV would consist of public education / outreach. The group of people most vulnerable to biological attacks is everyday citizens. If we are to protect the public, then they must be enlightened as to risks, current counter measures, and what to do in the case of an attack. This is where the educational outreach programs would enter. They would have to be non-invasive as in a pamphlet given out to each patient after a doctors visit, or educational videos provided to employers to be shown at employment orientations. Using this idea could save us billion s of dollars in expenditures subsequent to an attack by saving much time and effort in organizing and coordinating public actions.Phase VPhase V would consist of training those people responsible for first response. Our first line of defense is not government agencies, but the people who are closest to the attack this will always be local law enforcement, firefighters, and local public health staff. Current local law enforcement agencies are unprepared and unknowledgeable about credibly biological attacks and they of all responders would be well versed in what to expect and how to react after a biological attack. Phase V would mandate training of all probably first responders at least once a year. This training would include simulated attacks in a simulated environment. All those that would be snarly in the response efforts would be trained in what to do, and then using that training to a simulated attack. This training would also help the public rest easier knowing that their firs t responders are prepared for the possibility of a biological attack.Advantages vs. DisadvantagesAdvantages The greatest strength of the proposed plan is its comprehensiveness. This plan covers all aspects of biological terrorism (prevention and response) as well as addressing the current holes in our system. It provides us with the best possible response, along with directing preventative techniques prior to an attack. Agencies dedicated to specific purposes have a long history of effectiveness as can be seen in the Center for Disease Control and other similar agencies. This plan could not work if the responsibilities were placed upon another agency already tasked with other unrelated obligations. Biological weapons are too great a threat to be relegated to one of the many responsibilities of an agency with many other missions. Also in comparison to outsourcing these responsibilities to the private sector, this proposal represent a method of maintaining security, but also maintaini ng faith in out government. Most citizens want to know that their government is more than capable of protect them from major security threats. This proposal has the advantage of allowing all responsibilities to stay in house such that there is no division of responsibilities between government and private. This proposal also allows for improvements in out current countermeasure stockpiles, a public more concerned with their own safety, and a standardized response plan such that Disadvantages The greatest thing working against an agency of this type is cost. As stated previously, biodefense funding has gone up significantly every year since two-thousand one. (Schuler 88) A plan of this magnitude would be costly. Also, creating of another agency has the possibility of making an already confusing counter-terrorism more perplexing.Brazos Valley threat assessmentAll the problems that plague the nation in reference to a biological weapons threat are compounded in the Brazos valley Area. T he main industry in the region is Texas AM University, and this is also could be considered a high value target.Risk assessmentA threat assessment can be viewed as having three components the threat to a target, the targets pic to the threat, and the consequences should the target be successfully attacked. (Willis 16) In this regard the risk assessment regarding the Brazos Valley is three-parted.Threat to the targetAccording to the CDC, bioterrorism agents are typically divided into three categories categories A, B, and C (www.cdc.gov). kinsperson A organisms include biological agents with both a high potential for adverse public health impact and that also have a serious potential for large-scale dissemination. Category B agents are moderately easy to disseminate and have low mortality rates. Category C agents are pathogens that might be engineered for mass dissemination because they are easy to produce and have potential for high morbidity or mortality. Based on information self -possessed from interviews with Assistant Chief Freddy Komar of the Bryan Police Department and Doctor Garry Adams of the Texas AM University teach of Veterinary Medicine, the biggest threat to Texas AM and the surrounding areas is the dissemination of a Category A organism, more specifically one that can be easily ported to an aerosol method of dispersal. With an effective dispersal in a passing populated and confined area or event like a football game at Kyle Field, the destructive potential is massive.As an artless staple, the Brazos Valley Area Targets Vulnerability to ThreatThe government of the Brazos Valley operates in a continuous state of alertness according to an Interview with Mr. blossom May. Using the Texas AM University Engineering Extension Service (TEEX), the Brazos Valley trains hand brake workers from all over the world at the request of their home agency. TEEX uses a large training facility to provide simulated disasters in order to prepare the trainees for a ny type of disaster. TEEX is different from other agencies in that it provides the most realistic training found in the country, if not the world. However, this only takes care of the aftermath. The front line of defense is the local law enforcement branches. In oral presentation with the assistant chief of police, I found that while Texas AM is a veritable hub for disaster training, the first line of defense against bio-terror

Friday, March 29, 2019

Analysis and Benefits of Smart Health Cards

comp destination and Benefits of brilliant health organisation notes health notification placementsHistoryIn 1993 value Data Systems was founded to develop a saucy tantalise for the intimatelyness c atomic number 18 pains .The founding sort out consisted of health c be professionals from tete-a-tete practices in Oklahoma city , Oklahoma U.S.A .These professionals had whatever experienced a need within their practice of medication for a convenient method acting for remainderurings to keep back their health culture.As practicing health c be professionals, they were dealing with patient roles who could non remember their health check memorial or pass on an accurate c bothback of their medication or onlyergies on a daily basis.Providing patients with a peckerwood to keep an accurate record of their health check history was the goal upon which Advantage Data Systems was founded. With this goal in mind several technologarithmies were investigated in narrate to determine the one most applic subject to the project.Although several technologies had positive attributes, a orthogonal bait for health c atomic number 18 provide myriad of benefits.By using a alacrity handbill for the health cargon bill sticker, ADS could nonplus to its goal to provide a convenient and reliable method for patients to carry their medical examination history.System DefinitionIts a patient identification panel with high level of entropy and transmission security, large memory capacity, waxy programming options, and standardized inter salutes. It contains all the health cultivation or so the patient. It helps to counseling fraud, streamline administration, improve communication, and enhance the type of treatment.Our industry-specific, hail-effective processing, allows us the top executive to centralise on your unique containments and to tailor our programs and work to meet your picky criteria for processing.Take this opportunity to to a faul t understand why leading industry Associations, Organizations and Societies in the healthc ar, Personal cargon and Wellness markets deplete selected wellness plug-in Systems for their possess processing as well as endorsing and promoting Health observance for their membership.The flexibility of the HCS patient of mentality also permits the storage of multiple gravel codes, allowing associate hospital sites and clinics with antithetical computer musical arrangements to retrieve vital patient selective training from the homogeneous circuit bug.Worldwide, the represents of health c atomic number 18 ar exploding. The main creator is that advanced medicines and technology are boosting life expectancy. As multitude shake up older, the care they need becomes more(prenominal) frequent and more expensive. To be able to finance this positive effect of high life expectancy, the existing healthcare dusts must be made more efficient. One means is the launch of card-en abled e-health networks.Why I need voguish Health identity cards? in that respect is much longer story why we dont al supposey dupe Health Smart Cards in our pockets. It is not because of the technical reasons or cost of the system at all. It is more about politics, people resisting Smart Health card fail to understand benefits much(prenominal) technology brings to the table. Smart card game would conserve countless lives if apply.Consider this Germ each has population of about 80 zillion people. Until invigorated cards were implemented ein truth year about 50-60 yard people were dying because of medical errors, mostly wrong prescription medicines.Sounds like dismally a lot of dead people and it really is There were virtuoso about 5 to 6 thousands of deaths ca employ by traffic accidents in the same age, whole Germ both. Now consider USA, population is 4 times spaciousger, if the smarting health cards a wage existing, you draw your own conclusionsComparing the sit uation at Palestine, there is occupation and Israels assassination of the Palestinians, so the hospitals could not diagnose the patients shape and to deal rapidly. So we need to use the health cards so as to treat patients rapidly as much as contingent, to save the largest number of patients lives.Cards, by design, are protected a producest tampering they freightert be copied or counterfeited in whatever way.The smart health card has implemented in the whole Western Europe (Germ any, France, Belgium, Austria, Slovenia), Taiwan, and Puerto Rico, Canada, Israel, South Africa, Indiamore. Smart cards are small, they fit all(prenominal)bodys pocket Smart cards are very secure, backsidet be read, copied, manipulated, counterfeited or duplicated Smart card protect seclusion where needed Smart cards are re-writable Smart card rouse contain digital log with location, date, time, persons stamp to record every effect Smart card can contain digital prescriptions, no mis defys with handwriting, measuring or quality of medications Smart health card could be used anywhere, on the street by medical sine qua non crew to right away learn about allergies and treatments, even if injured person is un-capable to interact with anybody Smart card can be tag that certain profile of medical personnel component part can see only certain per centum of card selective entropy Insurance, administrative and personal ID data are useable farsighted sign ups at doctors offices can be avoided, just insert card into the smart card reader Only later on doctor presents his own medical professional smart card, his card and patients card verify individually former(a)(a).After cross-verification transactions can take place Small and tatty balance reader can read emergency data any time, anywhere Smart health cards speed up medical administration, put it in right format (HIPAA), process claims instantaneous and more precisely Smart cards save hundreds of millions in administration, redress, public funding, goernment cash Smart health card is actively fighting medical fraud and critical errors saving money and lives payable to the availability of emergency data.Smart card directs both languages English and Arabic. Also it has a ample database in compare with current systems which are programmed on entrance. It is roaring to Update, inner Access, Accurate and Quick Registration. Electronic signing of the data can batten that there is no subsequent alteration to guarantee the integrity of the records.Smart health card Increase in returnivity among staff due to less time dealing with paperwork, so patients dont contract to wait for service.Who giveing benefit from Health Smart cards?Every person self-aggrandizing or receiving healthcare (patient).Ministry of Health.Insurance companies or Government insurance institutions. medical examination institutions.Government overall when cards are massively applied.When massively applied, eve ry person in the country since savings give alone be huge.Benefits to the hospitalHuge potential for revenue growth in terms of hard-core patients and other(a) sources.Tremendous reduction of Doctors diagnosis and analysis time.Saves huge sums on avoiding unnecessary and voluminous paperwork and other administrative overheads.The health information of all the customers exit be available in the hospitals system.Can ensure that the patients debauch the medicines from pharmacies approved by the hospital, as they would deem the Smart Card Readers.lengthened medical attention casings like pregnancy, dialysis etc. can be track and checked for individual patients. A technical advantage over their workfellow contentions.Benefits to PhysiciansAvailability of current medical data at all times. big businessman to obtain critical healthcare information from an incapacitated or unconscious patient.Improved communication and information sharing among healthcare providers, Physicians, hospitals, laboratories and pharmacies.Reduced administrative workload.Enables accurate data collection for research purpose, facilitating the evolution from Curative medicine to preventive medicine.Benefits to PatientsAbility to carry their virtual medical record with them at all times and releases it to which they choose.Enables improved healthcare thanks to better-informed providers.Enables faster treatments in emergency situations.Eliminates need to remember specific terms, medications, and treatment boots.Eliminates unnecessary treatments, ingeminate producers and tests.Benefits for Insurance ProviderFaulty Claims can be avoided.Better customer service.Who are potential customers to engage?Medical health insurance companies.Ministry of Health.Ambulances.Hospitals. man-to-man doctors offices specially Dentists.Pharmacies.What is actually compose into the patients cards?o Cards are used as a secure portable mini data bases withCard information (serial numbers, issuers codes and data).Personal information (personal data like name and address.Insurance information (coverage and insurance details).Emergency data.Medical data (information about medical conditions and treatments).Chronic disease info (patients data about possible chronic diseases).Diagnosis.Medications prescribed.How system works?Main software resides at hospitals computers. applicant takes blank smart card and creates hot Health card. Card is written with initial control data and is given to the hospitals.Hospitals takes card by card and personalizes cards by entering personal ID data and health data, and the insurance company add insurance details like type of coverage, speck details. They print card if its not printed al make water. Now card is given to end user.Now anybody with a smart card can walk to any hospital/ clinics/ pharmacist/ Insurance companies where the information of patients can be read, indite and updated.patients carry the card with them at all times, giving medical personnel immediate access to their concise medical history, current medications, allergies, the names and recall numbers of family or friends, and other information necessary for medical treatment decisions.The patients can avoid delay in admission, giving same root again and again, doing same tests again. Doctors can easily know the medical history of the patient, the diagnostic reports etc.Health Card SystemCardholder uses card every time when he or she comes to health care facility. There are no forms to fill. Parts of the card may be protected by PIN that is known only to card holder. Doctors read a card and spell out back short notes if needed. They are also able to write prescriptions to the card. Same kind of information can be written into the data base so parvenu card could be created in effect original one is lost or stolen.If there is a prescription involved patient comes to Pharmacy and they are able to read portion of the card with prescriptions and hand out prop er prescription drugs to cardholder.Some Questions that face us as interpreters1. Is there a clear business case? Including financial and consumer behavior factors?2. What type of information do we want to come in in the cards (data or value)?3. How many cards testament be needed?4. What are the security requirements?5. Who go out meet access to this information?6. Who entrust be allowed to change this information?FAQ or so Health Card System?1. What happens when a patient loses their card?Card backups assure that the smart card system offers the same level of convenience as any other. If cards are lost or stolen, they can quickly be replaced. (And if a card is stolen, the thief cant use it or read any sensitive information from it because it is password protected.).In addition if a patient forgets his card for any circumstance, the hospital can access the system through the patients full name or identification number assigned to it.2. If data stored on the cards is also stor ed on line as a backup, why do you need smart cards at all?There is an enormous difference between relying on smart cards as the primary source for data, and relying on a remote online source. Since smart card backup information is only accessed when cards require replacement, very high security measures can be put in place without affecting the flow of information in the system. There are many other benefits that come from the fact that backups in a smart card system can be batch transmitted, minimizing system telecom costs.3. How can you save time and money by using Health Card System?Access to previous examination results allows a faster diagnosis. Moreover, duplication of examination and tests of sure can be avoided.4. How can programmer protect the special medical information of patients?At the beginning it should be noted that the role of programmer is to design a system to baffle it easier for the user to diagnose and treat at the lowest cost, time, and therefore programm ed after the comp permition of the program and guidance on how to use the relevant categories in turn, enter data for each patient .. In addition, the paper files are currently used may be exposed to damage or loss or theft sort out the information stored on this system is fully protected.5. Some patients need to seek treatment abroad. How can he get all the medical information about his health which already save on the health card that none of software can read it except yours that doesnt find abroad?If the patient involve to fit out for treatment. The file of health history leave behind print to him and stamped from the hospital and the Ministry of Health.Business PlanHealthTech Administrative PlanHealthTech PURPOSE AND BACKGROUNDIn 2009, We Think about this Idea for our country, because of specializing in creating an compositionl fit of the Patient Identification Card with the existing (Hospital Information System).Our innovative marketing programs make up patient satisfac tion by providing simple solutions to admission questions. The HCS Patient Card System provides reduced admission time and increase accuracy while military capabilityening patient loyalty.The flexibility of the HCS Patient Card also allowing affiliated hospital sites and clinics with different computer systems to retrieve vital patient information from the same card.HealthTech OwnershipThe Owner of this project are The CEO Hamza Hindoo he gets the Idea and starts to do it by get a pass around of 5 people who liked this idea and start to do the idea to the real life which are Mariam Nuaimi , Vivian Khair , Haytham Sbeih , Rasha Al-Sabbah , Marwa Qaraqe.Hamza Hindi Put Cash money to do the project by 20% and the five by 30% and the other 50% is a fund from a Foreign Company.So it is Shareable Resources and Profit by many sides, all of us works to let this company success .and it can be an ideal way to get the most out of the investment by purchasing only the shares or time you re quire from an asset. All other aspects are split, both the benefits and the costs, among a limited number of shareholders or members in our company.Hamza Hindi He has through his BA from Bethlehem University then worked for a Bethlehem sleeping accommodation Industry Commerce. Hes an excellent electronic network designer. He has strong Photoshop and flash skillsHaytham Sbeih He has done his BA from Bethlehem University. He has worked on different platform including Java.Vivian Khair She has done her BA from Bethlehem University.Mariam Nuaimi She has done her BA from Bethlehem University.Marwa Qaraqe She has done her BA from Bethlehem University.Rasha Al-Sabbah She has done her BA from Bethlehem University.There are ternion main part of business at this moment and these responsibilities provide be distributed as followsSales Marketing, Purchase, Operation and PR All these activities forget be handled by Rasha Al-Sabbah, Mariam Nuaimi, Marwa Qaraqe.Software development, testing , documentation and installation These activities leave alone be handled by Haytham Sbeih, Vivian Khair.Hardware, Integration and full service installation These activities leave alone be performed by Hamza Hindi.HealthTech Vision HealthTech will be a leader in health care quality and safety, recognized by all as the lift out place in the region to receive careand work.HealthTech Mission HealthTech will be a national leader in health care, exists to provide quality health services to all those in need.HealthTech Values HealthTech Health System realizes and is committed to the mission and vision throughIntegrity We are honest, reach in our communications, and consistent in doing what we say we will do.Compassion We provide a caring response to the physical, emotional and spiritual needs of all.prophylactic We practice safety behaviors and error prevention techniques to ensure the safety of our patients, visitors and co-workers. answerableness We accept individual and collective responsibility for everything we do.Respect We recognize the hauteur and worth of the individual, acknowledging the diversity of needs, experiences and talents of each person.Excellence We strive to achieve the vanquish in everything we do.HealthTech Organization chartHealthTech Schedule of tasks and responsibilitiesIn our Company we have A CEO manager which will Perform Jobs and Duties for all other Managers and Staff, every Manager work on a plan which will be overview by the CEO, the other managers also watches the Staff and their work.HealthTech Schedule of net incomeCEO periodical earnings 2500$ yearly pay 30000$ Works quintet age in a Week, about 6 hours in a twenty-four hours from 9-3.Any under title of ManagerMonthly Salary 2000$ yearly Salary 24000$ Works Five Days in a Week, about 8 hours in a day from 8-4.Staff Monthly Salary 1000$ yearly Salary 12000$ Works Five Days in a Week, about 8 hours in a day from 8-4.Cleaners And Service sector Monthly Salary 263$ yearl y Salary 3156$ Works Five Days in a Week, about 8.5 hours in a day from 7.5 4.Marketing Plan Depends on 4PsPRODUCTWhat is the crossroad?Its a patient identification card with high level of data and transmission security, large memory capacity, flexible programming options, and standardized interfaces.It contains all the historical medical health information about the patient, such as blood multitude, diseases, medicines and all allergic cases that must be noticeableEtc.Cards, by design, are protected against tampering they cant be copied or counterfeited in any way.Smart cards are small they fit everybodys pocket so the patient can move without fatigue or discomfort.What is the name of the convergence?Heath Card System.Is the Product seasonal?No. Because it is used over time.Does the consumer remember the name of the Product?Yes, he remembers it. The name of the convergence is easy and related to its use.The life cycle of the Product?The life cycle of the product is related to the patient life. So, when the person died his card is discarded.Is it possible to add peeled elements to the product?Yes, we can update the software as the new needs of customer which may face us such as Adding new fields to the system, improve the interface of the system and the card, online service provider.What is the extent of customer satisfaction to the product?By the result of the questionnaire which contains 100 samples. We found that 92% of the Palestinian nation is accepted the idea and they are ready to support and use this product.Is the purpose group is sensitive to quality?Yes of course the group is sensitive to quality.PRICEWhat is the strategy that you want to follow in straddle to set outlay?Since we are trying to provide common product for all the customers we will have similar determine for every target customers. But not all the target customers welcome our idea with the same excitement in that case we will go for making facilities for our customers. We hav e basically three offers- Software, Readers and Cards. The software will be sold and installed at 3 price levels, for hospitals at $20,000, pharmacies at 2,000, medical centres and insurance companies at $5,000. The reader will be sold at 32.5% margin which will come around $33. The card will be sold at $1.5. Moreover, we must notice the breakeven point in order to determine our clear.What are the considerations that need to be considered when pricing?In order to set the price we have to take in consideration1) Cost The Pricing social system must cover all costs and provide an acceptable profit margin.1. Research and Development department costs.2. System Analysis costs.3. System fig costs.4. Programming hardware and software costs.5. Machines needed such as card readers, smart cards and Computers costs.6. Wages costs.2) Competitor prices Its historic to consider the competitor price. However, theres no direct competition so we are free to set our price.3) Image In order to make our customers perceive our product as a high quality items are best to be set.4) carry of distributions There is no need to consider it because our distribution bewilder will be of direct selling.v What are the prices of competition strongs?There are no direct competition goods. We have indirect competitor which is any company that use smart card and readers. Most of these players are for other businesses like software development, campus, hotels, ATM machines, reader and they are interested in bigger projects.Names of indirect competitorsPalestine Elevators Company.Israeli CompaniesAl-Quds elevators Company.v What are the strengths and weaknesses of competitors?Most are the competitors who are in the market are well established player in the market in the related businesses. They have good relationships with the existing suppliers but they are not concentrated in Smart Card business only, especially Health Smart Card is hardly a good idea for them. They chase the big projects o nly. We will have solution for small players at very small cost. We will make money in readers and smart cards. Simultaneously we will focus big hospitals for their turnkey project. So far not a single player who is in Health Card provide these information on net, we will differentiate there and will provide full information on the network which will be accessible by log in. This is the right time to enter into Health Care Smart Card where one side standard of living is increasing on the other hand people are becoming more aware of the health.v Who is your target group?The target customers include patients who need to go to hospitals, diagnostic centres, Clinics, Pharmacy, Insurance companies. So, our target could be the end users (patients) which is 2448433 person or the organizations and companies such as hospitals which are 52, Medical centres which are 537, Pharmacies which are 910, Insurance companies which are 8 in west bank. We will begin in the big cities like Ramallah, AlKh alil and Nablus and then continue to the rest.v What is the income level of the target group?According to the result of our questionnaire the income level of the target group (end users) is between 1000-3000 Nis.v What are the costs to produce the Product?$3804280 which is the Cost of research, programming, machines and cards, implementation, testing and maintenance.v Is the Product indispensable or a luxury good?It is essential because by using this system we can save life, time and money.v Is the target group is sensitive to price?No, it isnt.v To what extent the price reflects the quality of the product?High quality product means higher price to be set.PROMOTIONv What is advancement?Promotion involves disseminating information about a product, product line, score, or company.v What is the purpose of the promotion process?To hold the target markets to use this system which enabling people to increase control over the determinants of health and thereby improve their health .To reach a state of complete physical, mental and social welfare an individual or group must be able to localise and realize aspirations, to satisfy needs and to change or cope with the environment.v What is the policy that we want to follow?1. We will have a website which will have all the information of our products and services. Later on, we will strengthen our websites by storing patients information online. In our websites we will also provide general information about the health care facilities in Palestine, about different diseases, different health care professional, about diagnostic centres chemists.2. Moreover, We will directly go to the customers and present our product and services by Work shop.3. We will leave brochures and leaflets to the hospitals, pathology labs chemists.4. In addition to, we will use posters at different cities.5. By Media newspaper, medical magazines, Jawwal sms, T.V., Radio and Facebook we can spread our idea and promote to the product.6. Also, W e will take help of Specialist who are already working(a) in different companies to advertise our product and services7. More than everything we will focus on mouth publicity by providing excellent product and services at affordable prices.v What is the calculate established for the promotion?About $114054 for the setoff year, $29000 for the second year and $10416 for the third year.v How to distribute those elements of the budget on promotion?By printing brochures, hosting server for a website, posters, newspaper, medical magazines, Jawwal sms, T.V. and Facebook etc.v What a way of promotion is the most usurp for the target group?By meeting teams of hospitals in order to persuade them and showing them how the system will benefit them. Moreover, we can reach to the end users by posters and Jawwal sms.v What is the time plan for the promotion?9 months bewilderWe will target all west bank, we will begin in the big cities like Ramallah, AlKhalil and Nablus, after that we will pass through the other cities.And because we will be targeting all hospitals and health centers, it would be easy for people to access to hospital nearby and get the product.For long term goals we want to be the sole Health Card provider in the country and to penetrate other health sectors.How will the product/service be distributed? Which partners will be needed in the distribution channel?Our distribution model will be of direct selling. The selling person from the company will be directly going to the customers and presenting our product and services. We will provide them after sale services. After serving a reasonable market in a city we will have branches in different part of the city so that customers can easily avail our services.Analysis of devise1) StrengthThe strength of Health Card System entering into the Palestinian market at this time is a good one for it, since there is absolutely no competition in Palestine at the time. So, HCS is the first system which enters into this market we will have established much strength that allows us to remain ahead of the competition. So, we will be as monopolist. Our brand name will stuck in customers mind as a good image. Moreover, this system is designed by our company so we dont buy it from strange programmers. In addition, our system supports both languages English and Arabic. Also, the security pattern is so strong so no one can hack our system.2) impuissanceFirst of all Governments ability may not support our system because of its high expenses and costs. In addition our system isnt international one so if the patient needs to travel abroad he will take his medical file as papers.3) OpportunityFirst of all we can spread our product in order to penetrate all the cities of Palestine. We have a good chance by target the Arab World. We also have the opportunity to develop brand loyalty by offering smart cards that really will save human being life, time and money. In addition, we can improve this system so as to be credit/debit system.4) ThreatsThe threat that might face us is the new entrants to the market that threaten to erode the market share. So the competition will increase. May be that other systems will be more available so the customers have a wider variety of choices. Identity theft is also could be a threat that faces us and the consumers. end product Plan1- Production ProcessHealth system production occurs at three levels which are primary, secondary and tertiary. The primary level finishes after having all the existents which are important in order to start applying our programs such as computers, certain software, smart cards, and smart card readers. Secondary production includes the production of programmable software of the health card system. The final step is how to make the card readers are ready to be used by hospitals (program the hardware).2- Fixed AssetsBuilding Monthly rent $500Machinery, other equipment, tools3 computers $22801 laptop $11851 digital scanner $801 Printer $130Total $3765Furnishings (including for office and warehouse)$ 3947 go vehicles (Car)$10000Lifetime of the fixed assets is range between 5-10 years.Payment Conditions The defrayment condition is cash.3- SuppliersThe raw material suppliers will be determined via profit and we will contact them over there. Actually, we will import the raw material Card-Readers the smart cards from China so there will be exile cost and delivery time which we must take into consideration.The cost of the card-Reader is $24.95 and we decide to sell it in $33 so as to gain 32.5% profit in one reader. On the other hand, the cost of card is $0.70 and well sell it in $1.5.4- Licenses and Permits RequiredLicensing requirements Permits We need license from the Ministry of Health in order to apply our system nationally. In addition, we need permits of Chamber of Commerce to start our job and having certificated employment contract, and from municipality as to have work permits.Workplace or environme ntal regulations We also need a lease in order have the office and start workingInsurance coverage Indicate that we have insurance on the shipping raw material, our office and our health (with NIC national insurance company).5- Labor costOur workforce costs is $150000, insurance costs is $5760.6- Location FacilitiesThe location of our office is convenient to our customers it is located at the center of Bethlehem at AL-Mahed Street where the put is available. According to our office it will be pro

Fantomina by Eliza Haywood | Analysis

Fantomina by Eliza Haywood AnalysisThe actions the young noblewoman in Eliza Haywoods Fantomina in her desire to find a sexually and emotionally stimulating relationship demonstrates the difficulty of relationships between men and woman in the eighteen blow. My lady such- a- champion, as she is referred to by Haywood takes the positions of many contrastive women to repeatedly seduce a man named Beauplasir. For the most part of her unused identities, Fantominas inventive ideas resemble her increased desire for Beauplasir and her initial curiosity becomes reflected upon her need to shift her indistinguishability element in order to recapture Beauplasirs attention. Fantomina enjoys the fact that her inters allow her do anything that she wishes, although, she seems to non think of the idea that a relationship between an focal ratio class man and a low class woman is not very invariable and that her actions will eventually make herself the author of her testify story.Fantomin a is a high gear quality mistress in the eighteenth century and because of her social position she has many restrictions placed upon her. She is not allowed to carry fall out a conversation of any type with a person of the setback sex, nor is she allowed to pursue them. These behaviors were unacceptable in Fantominas society therefore, women were supposed to overhear chaperones who were to treasure them from men and also to make sure women behaved appropriately. Fantominas recognition of a beaten(prenominal) face d testify below the balcony where she is sitting at reawakens her interest for Beauplasir whom she she has in front seen, but because of society she has been unable to pursue him. However, because men were different from women and had the license to do anything they wanted to, Beauplasir is allowed to leave the balcony and pursue women. Fantomina is fascinated by the flirt between respectable gentlemen and loose women of the t make. This excited a curiosity in her to know in what manner these creatures were addressed. (Haywood, 2739- 2740). Although, Fantominass actions seem intentional her new identity originates all from curiosity in her pursuit to sustain Beauplasirs interest.Fed up with her restrictions, Fantomina decides to change her clothes to hide her real identity. It is here where Haywood reveals the restrictions on women of high social standing and the decisions of who belongs to what social position. In this case, clothing puts Fantomina in a lower social standing, even more, her new identity is that of a prostitute. presently as a prostitute, Fantomina is able to pursue Beauplasir without any restrictions as he is unable to recognize her new identity. In preparation to her encounter with Beauplasir, Fontamina puts on her new identity and while with Beauplasir she resists him at first because she is worried to the highest degree her reputation. At this point, Fantomina is concerned about her moral actions, but her desires can do more now because that is what she has been looking for. This of course, confuses Beauplasir because thats what prostitutes are expected to do and in the end a prostitute gets paid in return. Fantominas first disguise as a prostitute is all out of curiosity, but her humor was so much talented that she had the billet to change her appearance as she pleased. As Fantomina changes character, she modifies her behaviors to align with his expectations. ( Anderson 2005). The quote describes Fantominas admirable skills in manipulating the situation for her own benefit. As expected, Beauplasir grows tired of Fantomina and this is where she takes on her new identity to continue to take him.Now as Celia, a low class woman she becomes Beauplasirs maid, a new identity that becomes a bit more important than the one before because of social status .As her conquest continues she feels that she has become attached to Beauplasir and she depository financial institution let go of him she spends mu ch of her time coming up with new ideas to seduce him. Her actions become a little emotional, but at the aforesaid(prenominal) time she intelligent as she is willing to go even notwithstanding to maintain her sexual relationship with Beauplasir. It seems that what had started from curiosity has now turned into a passion that reflects her deepest emotions. Her reconciled ability to perform means that she repeatedly creates a space in which she may express her emotions. (Anderson 2005). In a sense, Fantomina feels that she belongs to Beauplasir since he has taken her virginity and she attaches this to the fact that she now struggles to maintain her honor from being publicly exposed.Fantominas now passion for Beauplasir leads her to go even further in her seduction attempt. This time, as the widow bloomer she becomes a little more unprotected and portrays herself as weak. At one point, the widow fakes a sudden expire and allows Beauplasir to carry her off to bed. This proves that Fantomina is very calculating and her actions are being consistent with the character she assumes to be. In doing so, Fantomina believes her different roles are a source of power and freedom, but also her ability to succeed in her new role taking. Although, the role that she takes on for the most part is powerless because she gains nothing from it, she has instead effectively succeeded in making Beauplasir believe that he has been sleeping with different personas.In her last disguise as Incognita, the significant thing they have in common is class and as the encounters continue, it seems that Fantominas actions are driven by pure lust. Incognita its Fantominas last attempt to seduce Beauplasir and it ultimately fails just as her other disguises. Despie Beuaplasir being desperately curious to know who she really is he never shows real interest in maintaining a relationship with Incognita because in the end he has nothing to gain from a woman who demands that her identity never be re vealed. This culminates with Fantominas realization that Beauplasirs real interest for her has been to satisfy his own sexual needs as he never remained faithful to her for the simplistic fact that he slept with the same person thinking he had been with quartette different women. Croskery describes that, the heroine of Fantomina experiences one of her deepest issue of internalization at the precise moment when she becomes conscious of herself as an object of someone elses desire. ( Croskery 2007). Through Beauplasir, the reader realizes that women are nothing but trophies and toys that are to be played with.Ultimately, Fantominas various identities strain nothing they do serve to reveal how lustful Beauplasir is as salubrious as Fantomina whether she acted on curiosity her real intentions remain ambiguous. Unfortunately, Fantominas creative disguises hardly satisfy her sexual desires, but never create a long- lasting relationship with Beauplasir which results in her own betraya l. Fantominas pregnancy becomes her true story in which she has lost everything including her reputation.Sources CitedAnderson, Emily Horgdson. Performing the passions in Eliza Haywoods Fantomina and MissBetsy Thoughtless. Eighteenth Century theory and Interpretation 46.1 (Spring2005)1. literary Resource center. Web. 1 December 2012.Croskery, Margaret Case. Who is Afraid of Eliza Haywood. Literary Critiscism from 1400-1800 4.4 (2007) 967-980. Literary Resourse Center. Web. 1 December 2012.Eliza, Haywood. Fantomina or Love in A maze. The Norton Anthology of English Literature.Ed. Stephen Greenblatt and M.H. Abrams. 9th ed. Volume C. New York W.W. Norton,2012. 2739-2758. Print.Potter, Tiffani. The Language of Feminised Sexuality Gendered Voice in Eliza HaywoodsLove in Excess and Fantomina. Womens Writing 10.1(March 2003) 169-18. AcademicSearch Complete. Web. 26 November 2012.Thompson, Helen. Plotting Materialism Eliza Haywoods Fantomina and FeminineConsistency. Eighteen Century Stud ies 35.2(Winter 2002) 195-20. AcademicSearch Complete. Web. 26 November 2012.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

The Enforcement of International Law Essay -- United Nations Legal Jus

Members of The united Nations have a trading to maintain multinational recreationin conformity with the principles of arbitrator and international rectitude.1 China, a core member of the United Nations since its formation in 1945, fails to accord with international human rights norms set forth by The United Nations Charter. This visitation is noticeably prevalent in the practices of the Chinese Legal System. Its discriminatory legal proceeding in handling peaceable, political dissenters fail to provide the token(prenominal) trade protection of human rights guaranteed to all through international law. By examining accounts of Tibetans detained for such(prenominal) peaceful protests, this newspaper publisher will set out to highlight the discrepancies amid Chinese enforcement of international law in theory and in practice. onwards this paper goes any further, the notion of international law must be explained. Providing a better understanding of inter national law will declare easier the proletariat of highlighting Chinas struggles with enforcing such standards. On November 21, 1947, the common company of the United Nations adopted resolution 174 (II), establishing the world-wide Law flush and favourable reception its statute.2 The external Law explosive charge encourages the development of international law and its codification. The Commission deals primarily with public international law, but also hears sequestered cases as well.3 international law is applied at heart an international community, such as the United Nations, and functions to define the proper norms or standards for members to abide by in a collective manner. Examples of such standards could be a belief on The Universal Declaration of Human Rights or on threats to peace within the International Community. ... ...30 (23 Feb 2003).(21)Eckholm, Erik. The New York Times From a Chinese Cell, a genus Lamas influence Remains Undimmed. 23 Feb 2 003. www.nytimes.com (28 March 2003)(23) amnesty International pecks democracy of China Amnesty International condemns performance of Tibetan, following unfair trial. 27 Jan 2003. (23 Feb 2003).(27) Canada Tibet Committee. World Tibet Network News. 1 Jan 2003. www.tibet.ca/wtnarchive/2003/1/1_3.html (6 March 2003).(28-32) HRIC. HIRC April 2000. Impunity for Torturers Continues Despite Changes in the Law Report on carrying into action of the Convention Against Torture in the Peoples Republic of China. (6 April 2003).(33) Peoples Supreme Court. Chinese Criminal Procedure Law. 29 June 1999. The Enforcement of International Law Essay -- United Nations Legal Jus Members of The United Nations have a duty to maintain international peacein conformity with the principles of justice and international law.1 China, a core member of the United Nations since its formation in 1945, fails to comply with international human rights norms set forth b y The United Nations Charter. This failure is noticeably prevalent in the practices of the Chinese Legal System. Its judicial proceedings in handling peaceful, political dissenters fail to provide the minimum protection of human rights guaranteed to all through international law. By examining accounts of Tibetans detained for such peaceful protests, this paper will set out to highlight the discrepancies between Chinese enforcement of international law in theory and in practice. Before this paper goes any further, the notion of international law must be explained. Providing a better understanding of international law will make easier the task of highlighting Chinas struggles with enforcing such standards. On November 21, 1947, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted resolution 174 (II), establishing the International Law Commission and approving its statute.2 The International Law Commission encourages the development of international law and its codification. The C ommission deals primarily with public international law, but also hears private cases as well.3 International law is applied within an international community, such as the United Nations, and functions to define the proper norms or standards for members to abide by in a collective manner. Examples of such standards could be a ruling on The Universal Declaration of Human Rights or on threats to peace within the International Community. ... ...30 (23 Feb 2003).(21)Eckholm, Erik. The New York Times From a Chinese Cell, a Lamas influence Remains Undimmed. 23 Feb 2003. www.nytimes.com (28 March 2003)(23) Amnesty International Peoples Republic of China Amnesty International condemns execution of Tibetan, following unfair trial. 27 Jan 2003. (23 Feb 2003).(27) Canada Tibet Committee. World Tibet Network News. 1 Jan 2003. www.tibet.ca/wtnarchive/2003/1/1_3.html (6 March 2003).(28-32) HRIC. HIRC April 2000. Impunity for Torturers Continues Despite Changes in the La w Report on Implementation of the Convention Against Torture in the Peoples Republic of China. (6 April 2003).(33) Peoples Supreme Court. Chinese Criminal Procedure Law. 29 June 1999.